A History Of Car Free Development Tourism Essay

Mankind foremost settled in metropoliss about 7000 old ages ago, and metropoliss have served as the cradle of civilisation of all time since. Culture is hosted by metropoliss because lone metropoliss can back up great libraries, symphonic music orchestras, extended theater territories, major conference athleticss squads and huge museums. Cities besides provide the principal puting for economic activity ( J.H Crawford, 2000 ) . Jane Jacobs ( 1961 ) believes that the wealth of states is generated chiefly by pioneers located in urban countries with the wide substructure base needed to back up the constitution of new endeavors. Pioneers need a huge scope of goods and services near at manus, plus of class, good conveyance and communications. Merely metropoliss can supply such deepness of resourses ( J.H. Crawford, 2000 ) .

Until the late 19th century, all metropoliss were car-free. However, efforts to restrict the types of conveyance manners in metropoliss day of the months back to the Roman Empire when limitations on Equus caballus carts and the ensuing noise were imposed on many cardinal territories ( L.Wright, 2005 ) . “ Wheeled traffic was non allowed during the daylight in the streets of Rome. This ordinance was extended under Claudius to all Italian towns and Marcus Aurelius extended if farther to every metropolis in the Empire without respect to its ain municipal position ” ( Hass Klan et Al, 1999 ) .

Newman and Kenworthy ( 1999 ) suggest that a metropolis ‘s mobility features have evolved with each new dominant engineering. Newman and Kenworthy ( 1999 ) besides stated that most metropoliss today contain some elements of the metropolis types as observed from the 19th century viz. walking metropolis, transit metropolis and car metropolis due to their different forms of transit and denseness.

L.Wright ( 2005 ) stated that modern construct of auto free development owes its creative activity to research in the sixtiess and seventiess that highlighted the high societal and environmental costs if uncontrolled car.

Table 3.1 shows a historical chronogram of some of the events lending to auto free development during the old 40 old ages.

Table 3.1 Historical chronogram of modern car-free development

Date

Location

Description

1961

New York

Publication of “ The Death and Life of Great American Cities ” by Jane Jacobs

1962

Conpenhagen

First street pedestrianised in the metropolis Centre

1968

Delft

Community-led traffic quieting undertaking ( woonerf ) takes topographic point

1974

Switzerland

In response to the oil crisis of the early 1970s, four Car-Free Lord’s daies are organized

1991

New York

First international conference on Auto-Free metropoliss, organized by Transportation Options

1992

Dutch capital

Non-binding referendum is passed by 52 % of electors to do Amsterdam a car-free metropolis

1992

San Francisco

A grassroots attempt is launched by groups of bicyclers to repossess metropolis streets

1994

Dutch capital

Car-free metropolis web launched by the European Commission and Eurocities

1996

Kobenhavn

Copenhagen Declaration issued by European authorities groups to acknowledge the importance of organizing a Car-Free Cities web

1996

Bath

First Car-Free Day held in the UK

1997

United kingdom

The UK ‘s Environmental Transport Association ( ETA ) organizes the first of the three Car-Free Days in several UK metropoliss.

1998

France

First national Car-Free Day held in France with 34 metropoliss take parting ( “ En ville, sans ma voiture ” )

2000

Capital of colombia

Bogota holds the universe ‘s largest Car-Free Day event across an full metropolis of 7.2 million dwellers

2001

Worldwide

Over 1000 metropoliss in a sum of 33 states participate in the International Car-Free Day

3.3 CAR FREE CITY

In the absolute instance, Car-Free metropolis would connote the complete absence of any motorised vehicle travel at all times. Examples of auto free metropoliss are Venice ( Italy ) and the Medina of Fez ( Morocco ) . The cardinal country of Fez most likely hosts the universe ‘s highest car-free population in a individual concentrated country with about 156,000 dwellers ( Car free times, 2002 ) .

In some metropoliss that are about wholly auto free, uses of exigency vehicles are permitted. Cities likes Zermatt, in Switzerland, permit little electric vehicles to help with motion of goods and the theodolite of aged or handicapped individuals ( L.Wright, 2005 ) .

3.4 Benefits of Car Free metropoliss

With the decrease of car travel, auto free town can supply many benefits including increased community livability, reduced congestion, route and parking installation cost nest eggs, reduced pollution, increased route safety, increased consumer nest eggs and transit options, more accessible land usage and increased local economic development ( www.vtpi.org, 2010 ) .

In several instance surveies, it has been shown that with the decrease of vehicle traffic velocities and improved walking conditions in a community lead to important increased retail gross revenues and belongings value ( LGC, 2001 )

Harmonizing to Mc Cann ( 2001 ) , occupants of countries that are less automobile dependant can salvage 100s of dollars a twelvemonth in transit cost. Peoples who are economically, physically or socially disadvantaged are better off from improved walking, bicycling and theodolite conditions, peculiarly if ordinances include particular freedoms for vehicles used by people with particular demands.

Car Free yearss

Car free yearss are limited one-day experiment in censoring motorised vehicles from street entree. A auto free twenty-four hours can embrace an full metropolitan country or be conducted on a neighbourhood footing. Car free yearss are typically undertaken yearly on a weekday to show the viability of options during a normal work twenty-four hours.

Car free yearss are progressively high profile events that can be utile in rousing a metropolis and its occupants to the possibilities of a different urban environment ( L. Wright, 2005 ) .

“ By making a interruption in the normal form of behavior, Car Free yearss can supply an chance for the citizens and the municipality to take a measure back and reconsider the development way of the conveyance sector and whether it takes into history and meets the demands of all peopleaˆ¦ On an even broader graduated table, Car free yearss can function to trip a duologue about the hereafter of the metropolis and let citizens to inquire what precisely they envision their metropolis to go in say, 20, 50 and 70 old ages ” ( UN-CFD, 2005 )

The 22 September is now recognized as the International Car Free twenty-four hours. 1146 metropoliss participated in the Car Free twenty-four hours 2004.

The metropolis of Bogota, Columbia, organized a auto free twenty-four hours on 24 February 2000 wherein a metropolis of 7 million dwellers functioned without auto. Survey revealed that 87 per cent of the citizens were in understanding with the Car Free twenty-four hours, 89 per cent did non hold any trouble with transit system used, 97 per cent said there was no absenteeism at their office, school or university and 88 per cent said they would wish to hold another Car Free Day.

66 Gallic metropoliss and 92 Italian metropoliss participated in a auto free twenty-four hours in which auto free countries were established in big portion of metropolis Centres so as to enable the population to detect their place town on pes, by bike or public conveyance. 22 million people participated in the run. Survey showed that 85 per cent wanted the auto free yearss to be organized on a regular basis and 44 per cent of Paris occupants said they wanted a auto free twenty-four hours every hebdomad.

3.6 DEFINITION OF PUBLIC SPACE

A public infinite refers to an country or topographic point that is unfastened and accessible to all citizens, irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic degree.

Typical illustrations of public infinite are streets, town squares, Parkss, Government edifices, bowl, conveyance hubs, promenades and Gallerias.

Public infinite is normally shared and created for unfastened use throughout the community whereas private infinite is separately or corporately owned. It is built for a scope of assorted diversion and amusement, despite the fact that restrictions are imposed in the infinite to forestall certain actions from happening, such as public behavior that is considered to be objectionable or out of character as supported by jurisprudence.

Public infinites should be intergrated into residential, work, amusement and commercial countries. Social activities and public edifices should point onto public unfastened infinites.

3.7 AIMS OF PUBLIC SPACE

3.7.1 Beauty in Public infinites

Public topographic points make the environing environment more aesthetically delighting with trees, H2O characteristics such as fountains or pools and integrating of public infinites with beautiful edifices and public art.

3.7.2 Discourage offense

Peoples will merely be drawn to public infinites, if there are topographic points free of important offense and finally offense will be lowered in public infinites if there are people around.

Intergration of lodging, commercial activities and public infinites will guarantee activity throughout the twenty-four hours and eventide. With the usage of equal lighting and safety steps, offense happening will be discouraged even at dark.

3.7.3 Intergrate public topographic points with community

A public topographic point integrated with topographic points where people work, live, drama and store become portion of people ‘s day-to-day lives.

3.7.4 Pedestrian-Oriented Topographic points

Vehicular traffic creates noise, pollution and danger, all of which make public infinite less pleasant for walkers and drive them off.

3.7.5 Topographic points for drama & A ; leisure

It is of import to provide for a broad assortment of activities for people of assorted ages for drama and leisure in public infinite such as exercising and athletics activities.

3.7.6 Topographic point to sit

A public infinite should supply a assortment and ample figure of topographic points for people to sit. These siting topographic points can include benches, field daies, tabular arraies, grassed countries, stairss, shelfs and even public art.

It is of import to turn up siting countries so that people can see interesting things such as public humanistic disciplines, societal and cultural activities.

A public topographic point will merely come to life if there are musca volitanss for people to sit and speak with one another and besides there is some sense of privateness offered by some of these siting countries.

Research has shown that people display a penchant for populating close to open infinite and that unfastened infinite comfortss attract migrators to the metropolis ( Wul & A ; Platinga, 2002 ) .

3.8 BENEFITS OF PUBLIC SPACE

In research carried out for CABE ( 2002 ) , 85 per cent of people surveyed felt that the quality of public infinite and built environment has a direct impact on their lives and manner they feel.

It is of import to guarantee that push for higher denseness lodging is non at the disbursal of good quality outdoor infinites. In fact, the higher the denseness of lodging, the greater the demand for well-designed, good managed public infinites to help “ liveability ” in that community. ( CABE, 2002 )

The Deputy Prime Minister of United Kingdom, Mr John Prescott stated that successful, booming and comfortable communities are characterized by streets, Parkss and unfastened infinites that are clean, safe and attractive – countries that local people are proud of and want to pass their clip in.

3.8.1 The Economic value of Public infinite

The presence of good Parkss, squares, gardens and other public infinites is going a critical concern and selling tool in order to attact investing in towns. Companies are attracted to locations that offer well-designed, well-managed public topographic points and these in bend attract clients, employees and services.

3.8.2 Positive impact on belongings monetary values

In towns of Emmen, Appledoorn and leiden in the Netherlands, it has been shown that a garden bordering H2O can increase the monetary value of a house by 11 per cent while a position of H2O or holding a lake nearby can hike the monetary value by 10 per cent and 7 per cent severally.

In Dallas, about all occupants values public green infinites extremely and most used them for recreational activities irrespective of whether or non their places backed on to them.

3.8.3 Good for concern

It has been shown, for illustration, that well-planned betterments to public infinites with town Centres can hike commercial trading by up to 40 per cent and generate important private sector investing.

In 1980, 16 per cent of Denver occupants said they would pay more to populate near a greenway or portion. By 1990 this figure has risen to 48 per cent.

In Berlin in 2000, propinquity to resort areas in residential countries was found to increase land values by up to 16 per cent. In the same survey, a high figure of street trees resulted in an addition of 17 per cent in land values.

A survey of downtown San Francisco shoppers found that less than one fifth of the respondents drive to shop and that they spend less money in sum than shoppers utilizing other transit manner ( Bent, 2006 ) . It is viewed that shoppers that walk pass more money than those who travel by auto.

Table 3.2 Current outgo by manner of conveyance

Manner

Weekly Outgos

Bus

?63

Car

?64

On pes

?91

Train/tube

?46

Other ( taxi, rhythm… )

?56

Table 3.2 found higher hebdomadal outgos by consumers who travel by walking than those who drive or use theodolite to downtown shopping territories in the UK ( Accent Marketing and Research )

3.8.4 Making revenue enhancement gross

By assisting to increase the value of places in this manner, Parkss and other public infinites bring wider benefits in footings of increased revenue enhancements paid to authorities when belongingss are bought and sold.

A good illustration comes from San Francisco, where propinquity to the Golden Gate Park has been known to increase belongings monetary values from $ 500 million to $ 1 billion, therefore bring forthing between $ 5-10 million for the province in one-year belongings revenue enhancements.

3.8.5 The impact on physical and mental wellness

Entree to good quality, well-maintained public infinites can assist to better our physical and mental wellness by promoting us to walk more, to play athletics or merely to bask a green and natural environment.

3.8.6 Benefits for kids and immature people

Play is a important for many facets of kids ‘s development, from the acquisition of societal accomplishments, experimentation and the confrontation and declaration of emotional crises, to moral apprehension, cognitives accomplishments such as linguistic communication and comprehension, and of class physical accomplishments.

3.8.7 Social dimensions of public infinite

Properly designed public infinite bring communities, irrespective of cultural beginning, age, or gender, together and supply meeting topographic points and surrogate societal ties.

It has been found that community gardens brings people together from different ages and civilizations, and therefore assist to make sense of vicinity.

Public infinites can be used a locales for societal events. Well-managed festivals and other events can hold a really positive consequence on the urban environment, linking the community together and conveying fiscal, societal and environmental benefits.

3.8.8 Reducing Crime and fright of offense

Fear of offense, to a much lesser extent offense itself, can discourage people, non merely vulnerable groups, from utilizing even good-quality public infinites. Children and immature people are frequently prevented from utilizing Parkss, squares and streets because of their parents ‘ fright about offense. Physical alterations for better direction of public infinite can assist to still these frights.

Birmingham metropolis council achieved 70 per cent bead in larceny from shopping bags by increasing the visible radiation of their street markets and widening pathwaies from 2m to 3m to give walkers more infinite.

Surveies were carried in streets of Edmonton ( UK ) , Tower Hamlets before and after street lighting betterments were introduced. The benefits ensuing from the improved lighting were a decrease non merely in the degree of offense but besides in the perceptual experience and fright of offense. In Edmonton, 62 per cent of people interviewed said they felt safer utilizing the streets, with 83 per cent of those respondents imputing their increased sense of safety to the improved lighting degrees.

3.9 DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR PUBLIC SPACE

Harmonizing to Calthorpe ( 1993 ) , the basic mix of utilizations for neighbourhood theodolite oriented development should dwell of 10 to 15 per cent for public uses,10 to 40 per cent for employment type utilizations and 50 to 80 per cent for lodging usage.

Streets layouts are designed on geometric angles ending with positions of public edifices and public infinites such as town squares and Parkss. Public infinites such as town halls, theaters community Centres, rail Stationss, schools, topographic points of worship are used for landmarks of orientation.

Public infinites should be located for incorporate utilizations in town Centres as the physical and societal focal point for the community. As per Western Australian Planning committee, an norm of 10 proceedingss walking distance equivalent to 800 m in radius is allowable distance from residential countries to town Centres.

Carver ( 1961 ) stated that public squares should work as nodes within a community, where prosaic traffic base on ballss through them. Public squares should be located in countries of the community with high degrees of activity.

Alexander ( 2000 ) stated that prosaic tracts within the community should associate with nodes and at the Centre of each node a public square should be surrounded by a combination of activities ( Retail, cultural/community ) . In other words, the public square would move as the Centre or bosom of each activity node.

Alexander ( 2000 ) besides stated that size of public square can be calculated based on estimation of the figure of people that will utilize the infinite and besides uses environing the square.

Whereas Whyte ( 1998 ) stated that it was non needfully determine, size or design of public squares that ensured high degree of usage but instead the comfortss available on the square. Parks should be located along major streets to set up a high public profile. Parks located in remote and uneven locations do non work decently and are left unattended.

A survey carried out for the metropolis of Bangalore in India showed that some public topographic points take on life of their ain due to market forces and people ‘s demand. The chief features of such topographic points are easy handiness and suited functional mix. In Bangalore, these infinites harvest up at strategic points within the metropolis, near institutional edifices, spiritual edifices and around landmarks. These infinites accommodate sellers and peddlers, street performing artists and street theaters.

Calthorpe ( 1994 ) suggested that one to four estates ‘village ‘ Parkss be placed within two blocks of any abode. Calthorpe ( 1994 ) stated that the entire park land area within a community should be based on the measure of residential development and/or the equivalent to about 5 to 10 per cent of the site country. A survey on town of Markham revealed that illuming should accomplish optimal visible radiation degrees for general visual aspect and operational efficiency.