Arab Spring: Reform and Transition of Political System Essay

The Arab Spring or revolutions started in 2010. in which a mass protest motion in subverting autocratic governments in some of Arab states. which was a unsafe political alteration in Arab part has become known as the Arab Spring. a term Arab Spring given to the events that have overthrown some political governments and presidents such as Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in Tunisia. Hosni Mubarak in Egypt. Muammar Gaddafi in Libya and Ali Abdullah Saleh in Yemen. Those revolutions in 2010 in some of Arab states are more or less similar to The 1979 Persian Revolution. Because both of them are protest motion in subverting a political system and replaced with another different political system. The 1979 Persian Revolution. in which a mass protest motion succeeded in subverting the monarchal and dictatorial Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and established an Islamic Republic in its topographic point. is widely considered to be one of the most important revolutions of the Twentieth Century. In peculiar. the Persian Revolution is alone in that it overthrew a secular government and replaced it with an Islamic province.

For that ground. the Persian Revolution and the subsequent Islamic Republic have defied easy apprehension. 1 Before I discuss Arab spring in more item. it is necessary for me to unclutter up some of the subjectivenesss environing footings such as ‘authoritarian system’ and ‘Arab spring’ and explicate how I will be using them in this essay. and besides some other footings such as political alteration. Dictatorship or autocratic system is a political system in which a little group of persons exercisings power over the province without being consti­tutionally responsible to the populace. In autocratic systems. the populace does non play a important function in choosing or taking leaders from office. and therefore political leaders in autocratic systems have much greater to develop policies that they “dictate” to the people ( hence the term “dictator” ) . As one can conceive of. autocratic systems by their nature are built around the limitation of single freedom. At a lower limit. they eliminate people’s right to take their ain leaders. and they besides restrict to changing grades other autonomies such as the freedom of address or of assembly.

Authoritarianism’s relationship to equality is less clear. Some autocratic systems. such as communism. bound single freedom in order to bring forth greater societal equality. Others seek to supply nor equality. bing merely to heighten the power of those in control. The term Arab spring is a series of anti-government rebellions in assorted states in North Africa and the Middle East. get downing in Tunisia in December 2010. The Arab Spring has brought down governments in some Arab states. sparked mass force in others. through protests people in some Arab states they changed political systems and authoritiess. while some authoritiess managed to detain the problem with a mix of repression. promise of reform and province largesse. But there is another thought about the term “Arab Spring” and they said Arab Spring was popularized by the Western media in early 2011. when the successful rebellion in Tunisia against former leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali emboldened similar anti-government protests in most Arab states.

The term was a mention to the convulsion in Eastern Europe in 1989. when apparently inviolable Communist governments began falling down under force per unit area from mass popular protests in a Domino consequence. In a short period of clip. most states in the former Communist axis adopted democratic political systems with a market economic system. 4 The construct of political alteration is more related with alteration of political government such as non-democratic or autocratic government to democratic government or any other political systems. The term political alteration refers to the displacement or conveyance from one topographic point to another or possibly from one province to another 1. It is intended besides the overall transmutations experienced by the political constructions in society so that the re-distribution of power and influence within the same state or several states. Tunisia revolution was first revolution in Arab part in other words Tunisia is the place of birth of the Arab Spring which is started following the the self-immolation of Mohammed Bouazizi. a local seller outraged over the unfairnesss suffered at the custodies of the local constabulary. sparked nationwide protests in December 2010.

The chief mark was the corruptness and inhibitory policies of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. who was forced to fly the state on January 14 2011 after the armed forces refused to check down on the protests. Following Ben Ali’s ruin. Tunisia entered a drawn-out period of political passage. Parliamentary elections in October 2011 were won by Islamists who entered into a coalition authorities with smaller secular parties. 5 The 2nd revolution or protest was in Egypt when protests in Egypt began on 25 January 2011 and ran for 18 yearss. Get downing about midnight on 28 January. the Egyptian authorities attempted. slightly successfully. to extinguish the nation’s Internet entree. in order to suppress the protesters’ ability use media activism to form through societal media. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia. but the decisive minute that changed the part forever was the ruin of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. the West’s cardinal Arab ally. in power since 1980. and Mubarak was forced to vacate on February 11. after the armed forces. similar to Tunisia. refused to step in against the multitudes busying the cardinal Tahrir Square in Cairo. But that was to be merely the first chapter in the narrative of Egypt’s “revolution” . as deep divisions emerged over the new political system.

Islamists from the Freedom and Justice Party ( FJP ) won the parliamentary and presidential election in 2011/12. Third revolution in Arab spring was in Libya By the clip the Egyptian leader resigned ; big parts of the Middle East were already in convulsion. The protests against Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi’s government in Libya started on February 15 2011. intensifying into the first civil war caused by the Arab Spring. In March 2011 the NATO forces intervened against the Qaddafi’s ground forces. assisting the resistance Rebel motion to capture most of the state by August 2011. Qaddafi was killed on October 20 the terminal of the protests was after he have been killed. 6 There are many different grounds behind Arab Spring or revolutions domestic grounds and international grounds. Harmonizing to Dr. Hawar Khalil. the caput of political scientific discipline section in university of Duhok. There are three chief grounds behind Arab spring ; political. economic system and societal.

Many factors taking up to many protests such as political systems in some of Arabic states was autocratic system and authorities did a control over people. there was no freedom of address. inequality no freedom of imperativeness. human rights misdemeanors. unemployment. poorness etc… Besides the Arab Spring which is started following the self-immolation of Mohammed Bouazizi. a local seller outraged over the unfairnesss suffered at the custodies of the local constabulary. sparked nationwide protests. The consequences of the Arab spring are to reform or alteration of the political system from bad to better or to pip. Reform is: alteration and accommodation for the better or worse. particularly in the patterns and behaviours of establishments are corrupt or autocratic societies or backward or take or rectify unfairness or mistake.

The thought or the construct of ??reform is non a new construct. which is found in the Hagiographas of ancient Grecian minds like Plato and Aristotle batch of progressive thoughts such as justness. Torahs. organisation of society. the province. political stableness. just distribution of wealth etc… It could be argued that the thought of ??reform was is the ultimate end for many philosophers. leaders. political and societal motions in different parts of the universe. every bit good as being a major subject in the political theories of the philosophers and minds since Machiavellian in the Middle Ages to Karl Marx in the 20th century. But in the Middle East the thought of ??reform began in the Ottoman Empire in the military field after the licking suffered by the forepart of the Russia in 1774. so subsequently extended to the political. administrative and societal development. 7 And the concept political reform is effectual stairss and earnestly taken by authoritiess and civil society about to happening best systems based on democracy rules such as freedoms. human rights. people governs themselves through elections and political pluralism modernisation. passage. economic development etc…

That lead to trading governments. and based by elective legislative assembly. independent bench and the authorities determinations based on fundamental law. At the terminal we can state that the consequences of Arab spring are non reform to better but is more change some political system. and the consequences of Arab spring in the bulk of Arab states was alteration to pip even there was elections in some states but still people enduring from same things before Arab spring and besides the consequences of Arab spring led some states to war such as Syria. There are many grounds behind non win political reform in the bulk such as First of all political factors: such as the failing of the political leaders or politicians. the failing of constitutional establishments. failing and loss of statute law and inadvertence governments or decision-making. the failing of civil society organisations or political parties. brotherhoods. associations and federations. Besides Political instability. extremism. terrorist act. crises. civil wars etc…

The 2nd point related with cultural factors which they are of import in the reform procedure and influential political reform either pay his calling frontward. or frailty versa to halt and hinder the reform procedure. so that the construction of society and its establishments. values ??and forms of behaviour. hold a direct function in act uponing the reform positively or negatively. Another of import thing is faith and the outlook of people even the political system is changed but still the outlook of people is non change and this is makes reform procedure more hard. Third point is related with economic factors: because the bulk of Arab people are enduring from bad economic and crises besides the poorness. unemployment and worsen the spread between rich and hapless etc… As a decision as I mentioned in the beggary of essay Arab spring was which a mass protest motion in subverting autocratic governments in some of Arab states many Arab states such as ; Tunisia. Egypt. Libya. Yemen. Syria etc…

Mentions:
1- Brendan January. the Persian Revolution. ( USA: Lerner Publishing Group. Jan 1. 2008 ) .

2- Juan Jose Linz. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. ( London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Jan 1. 2000 ) .

3- Clement Henry and Ji-Hyang Jang. the Arab Spring: Will It Lead to Democratic Passages. ( USA: Palgrave Macmillan. Sep 19. 2013 ) .

4- Primoz Manfreda. Middle East Uprisings. middleeast. about. com. 2011.

5- Yasmine Ryan. Tunisia’s acrimonious cyber war. aljazeera. com. 06 Jan 2011.

6- Primoz Manfreda. Middle East Uprisings/ Libya. middleeast. about. com. 2011.

7- Abdullah Belkeziz. Aselat Al-fker Al-Arabi Al-Muaser. ( Morocco: Press success Ayyubid. 1998 ) .