Attitude And Participation In Environmental Management Tourism Essay

Research proposal

Thailand touristry plays an of import function in its economic development and the hotel concern is portion of it. Tourism industry and hotel concerns are influence and back uping each other. The activities of hotel concerns are issues that had a much impact on the environment. The planetary heating phenomenon has been dramatically increasing. Environmental crisis has become one of the universe ‘s most serious jobs to be concerned about caused by increasing universe population. Peoples had doubled the ingestion of natural resource ( Webster, 2005 ) .

Activities from touristry have affected straight and indirectly the ecosystems. For case, coral reefs is damaged by tourers such as trample, purchasing, or roll uping reefs species which has a direct impact happening in the locality, or increasing H2O temperatures as experiential in South Pole fluctuation phenomena. It is likely to be the consequence of planetary clime alteration related to human activities including travel that it may be an indirect impact happening on big regional graduated tables ( Gossling, 2002 ) .

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At the same clip, there has been a lifting apprehension within the planetary hotel industry of the relevancy of environmental protection issues. Hotel concerns are seen to be altering their repute by prosecuting in environmental enterprises. Triggered by the planetary enterprise to discourse touristry ‘s environmental and societal impacts in “ Agenda 21 ” of the 1992 Earth Summit, hotel associations in developed states are doing attempt to drive hotels towards controlled environmental direction ( Kasim, 2004 ) . Most hotel concerns are carry oning a pattern, policy and scheme known as an Environmental Management System ( EMS ) to acquire advantages among competitory hotels in market portion ( Darliy and Huang, 2001 ) . Therefore, hotels have to set seasonably programs to cover with environmental direction all the clip about consumers ‘ demands for greener merchandises and operational efficiencies in sustainable manner.

Employees are of import to organisations, and can be improved or developing organisational public presentation ( Huselid, 1995 ; Hoque, 2000 ) . Therefore, in environmental direction, it needs protagonists ‘ participatory attack to shared environmental duty among the hotel employees in order to accomplish the same end and work out jobs in environmental direction.

Furthermore, employees are considered cardinal to the endurance of competitory organisations, particularly in visible radiation of the new economic environment of globalisation and employment where employees ‘ qualities, attitudes, and behaviour in the workplace could impact the public presentation of organisations. Therefore, Human Resource Management ( HRM ) has become a critical issue for the hotel industry ( Nolan, 2002 ) . In add-on, Wattana ( 2009 ) she is an Asst. Director of Human Resources of Novotel Bangkok Hotel in Siam Square states that a good employees ‘ attitude is of import for hotels. Attitude and personality in working that is a first one organisation will see because a positive thought can do employees mean to take the occupation acquisition. That is more of import than anything else.

The environmental direction and duties by hotels in developing states is still comparatively rare. The actions can better the cognition and apprehension by supplying information on the reactivity of hotels towards employees and directors in the topic of environmental direction. It can better the consciousness and attitudes of hotel employees and directors towards engagement ( Kasim, 2009 ) . However, this issue of how organisation achieves such sustainability is still ill-defined and pattern is non taken earnestly.

This research is to research the Novotel Bangkok Hotel employees ‘ attitude and engagement to do environmental direction that will recognize and heighten chances for sustainability that is the rule to the universe.

Clear rubric of undertaking

Hotel Employees ‘ Attitudes and Engagement in Environmental Management: A Case Study of Novotel Bangkok Hotel in Siam Square, Thailand

Concise statement of research job

Harmonizing to Wahab and Pigram ( 1997 ) an highly demanding client is one of the factors behind sustainable hotels in environmental friendly atmosphere. We can see from client ‘s mark to remain in “ green ” hotels that 73 per centum is considered to be environmentally minded consumers, while 71 per centum showed willingness to remain in a hotel that implemented environmental schemes ( Gustin and Weaver, 1994 ) . Therefore, sharing environmental duty demand and must intention among the hotel employees. They should be encouraged to show and take the duty towards bar of environmental jobs in hotel.

Undertaking aim ( s ) :

1. To analyze the hotel employees ‘ attitudes on environmental direction in hotel

2. To analyze the hotel employee ‘s engagement in environmental direction in hotel

The range and definition of the survey:

This research will happen in Novotel Bangkok Hotel and the questionnaires will be provided to employees at the HR counter of the hotel, before they start working. Period to carry on the study will be 27 June to 11 July 2010, an official missive from Naresuan University will be sent to the executives or manager of the hotel bespeaking permission for the study to be conducted as portion of a research. Population sample will be selected from the hotel employees.

Definition of footings:

Employee: a individual who provides service to hotel clients

Attitude of hotel employees in environmental direction: a mental status affecting beliefs and feelings on the hotel environmental direction actions

Engagement of hotel employees in environmental direction: action and behavioural look of the hotel employees affecting the hotel environmental direction actions

Hotel Environmental Management: the procedure of environmental direction in the hotel which additions purpose and engagement from employees in environmental direction undertakings for specific environmental job and bar

Premises:

H1: There is a difference in employees ‘ attitudes toward environmental direction with different demographic profiles ( sex, age, instruction degree, work experience and place ) .

H2: There is a difference in employees ‘ engagement toward environmental direction with different demographic profiles ( sex, age, instruction degree, work experience and place ) .

Restrictions:

Model of clip is one of the restrictions for this research, as the topic is allowed because it is non insistent from past topic of research workers and a short period to carry on the research. Therefore it has an consequence on the pick of sample size. It may non be adequate sample size that can take to fallible consequence.

Human moralss considerations:

In this research, the questionnaire is antiphonal in personal right as the privateness of research ‘s participants and do non hold sensitive inquiries. Permission has been requested during the informations aggregation. Furthermore, personal informations and replies of hotel employees who fill out the questionnaires must be regarded confidential and preserved.

Practical significance:

Department of environmental direction and hotel executives can utilize the consequence from this research to recognize the employee ‘s attitude and engagement in environmental direction, in order to better the cognition and consciousness in quality of environmental direction of the hotel. Furthermore, other hotel executives can see and use this research for analyzing their ain hotel employees. In add-on, research workers can utilize the consequence for future research.

Background information:

The Novotel Bangkok in Siam Square is a four-star hotel in the lively Centre of Bangkok. It has 429 suites that accommodate for both concern trips and vacations. Furthermore, it is really near to the BTS sky train station and the bosom of shopping Centre. The Novotel Bangkok is a member of Accor group. Accor hotel web, at the terminal of December 2009, had a sum of 4,111 hotels or 492,675 suites to pull off.

Figure 2: Location of Hotel Novotel Bangkok on Siam Square

Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.novotel.com/gb/hotel-1031-novotel-bangkok-on-siam-square/location.shtml

For more than 40 old ages, the Accor group has provided high quality merchandises to hotels and service clients. In 2006, they launched the group ‘s societal and environmental undertakings called the “ Earth Guest plan ” that provides a existent response to turning societal and environmental concerns.

Highlights of the Earth Guest plan

– There are 3,292 hotels or 84 % of the Accor web that applied for the hotel Environment Charter.

– Energy ingestion reduced by 2.5 % .

– Novotel has undertaken a undertaking to have Green Globe enfranchisement.

– There are 69 states around the universe and 100,000 employees were involved in Earth Guest twenty-four hours 2007.

With 88 % of Accor hotels that use the hotel Environment Charter to steer their environmental direction and do the end Accor has 255 ISO 14001-certified hotels and 242 Ibis hotels in 12 states, 9 Thalassa Sea & A ; Spa sites in France.

Accor has 30 Green Globe-certified hotels in 11 states as 27 Novotel hotels and 3 Sofitel hotels and besides Accor has 11 Canadian hotels which are HAC ( Hotel Association of Canada ) certified. Furthermore, Accor has set the aims in 2010, viz. they attempt to acquire the environmental enfranchisement of 20 % of Accor hotels ( Accor Group ) .

Literature reappraisal:

The research on Hotel Employees ‘ Attitude and Participation in Environmental Management: A Case Study of Novotel Bangkok Hotel on Siam Square, Thailand ” , studied by theory and literature as follows:

Hotel industry plays an of import function in economic development and support touristry in Thailand. It is a cardinal selling in developing state. However, there is no good program and command hotel development that affect in environmental jobs both in short term and long term ( Kirk, 1995 ) . Hotel concerns are altering their image by interesting in environmental friendly direction. Triggered by the planetary enterprise to discourse touristry ‘s environmental and societal impacts in “ Agenda 21 ” of the 1992 Earth Summit, hotel associations in developed states are doing attempt to drive hotels towards controlled environmental direction ( Kasim, 2004 ) . Therefore, hotels have to set seasonably programs to cover with environmental direction all the clip about consumers ‘ demands for greener merchandises and operational efficiencies in sustainable manner.

Furthermore, the hotel employees need to better and adjust themselves on their public presentation about the hotel environmental direction. It is suiting into the hotel attack scheme by back uping engagement and sharing environmental duty among the hotel employees in order to accomplish the same end and work out jobs in environmental direction.

Harmonizing to Wattana ( 2009 ) she is an Assistance Director of Human Resources of Novotel Bangkok Hotel in Siam Square references that the positive attitude from hotel employees is really important for most hotels. Attitude and personality in working that is a first one organisation will see because a positive thought can do employees mean to take the occupation acquisition. That is more of import than anything else. Kasim ( 2009 ) states that largely, the hotels in developing states are comparatively rare on environmental direction and duties. The manner to concentrate on develops the cognition and apprehension of employees and directors in the subject of environmental direction by supplying information about consciousness environmental concerning. As a consequence, the employees and directors attitude will towards engagement on sustainable manner.

Concept of Attitude

Application of the attitude construct has interested among research workers, for case from renowned Heberlein ( 1973 ) attitude steps are utile in functioning an information map and a societal control map such as if to cognize the attitudes that cause specific behaviours, if these attitudes can alter and arouse desirable behaviour. Furthermore, Fishbein and Ajzen ‘s Theory of ground action ( Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975 ) led to improved anticipations of behaviours from attitude, and besides to wider credence of the attitude causes behavior account.

The saving of environmental quality, as supported by the green association within the hotel concern, should therefore do betterment with the willingness of employees and directors to move in environmental direction manner. The difference in environmental attitude between the independent and chain-owned hotels that depends on the hotel director ‘s attitude and cognition. Therefore, environmental direction is besides more frequently observed among the staff of concatenation hotels. On the other manus, in little hotels it is more likely that all employees have certain environment tilting responsibilities ( Bohdanowicz, 2005 ) .

The significance of Attitude: harmonizing to Good ( 1973 ) attitude is the inclination to respond specifically toward an object, state of affairs and value based on feeling and emotion. Sometimes attitude can non be observed from emotion but must be observed from behaviours as speech production and moving. Furthermore, Thurstone ( 1967 ) states that attitude is the human centre of feeling, thought, and fright or against of something. It can be expressed by moving, address and demoing sentiment. He besides said that thought can mensurate it from the staff thought to stimulus.

Characteristic of Attitude: harmonizing to Thitaya Suwanchot ( 1997 ) the four features of attitude are as follows:

1. Attitude is a state of affairs prior to the happening of reaction behaviour. It can be a state of affairs that prepares an person to make something.

2. Stability of attitude will go on in a specific period. It is surely hard to alter temperaments when there is stableness in attitude.

3. Attitude is the standard that will convey interrelatedness between behaviour and sentiment. It besides provides the form of speech production and feeling or facing and avoiding.

4. Encouragement is an ability caused by attitude that prompts people to prove and choose one thing, and it besides affects the inclination of existent playing.

The Measurement of Attitude

There are many psychologists who think of attitude as a inclination to link in behaviours and so associate to attitude. Some state of affairss use graduated tables for attitude measuring to stand for as adequate or unequal picks. Measurement must be outstanding from categorization into classs without order of importance or way. For the attitude measuring, the Likert method is a simple method that people probably use. In this research, the Likert method is used ( Hopkins, Stanley, and Hopkins, 1941 ) . This method arranges the feeling into five degrees ; really equal, equal, non certain, unequal, really unequal. The place will be scored for each degree.

Concept of Participation

The procedures of holding people take portion in the populace job resolution and showing the thought developed from believing system and realizing is of kernel. The community authorization public presentation entirely can non really work out the job in a community and so the association of conductivity within groups have stated. Human resources development has been an issue that focuses on intelligence, cognition and ability. Employee engagement, it is discussed as the most powerful degree of direction that can be used to derive credence of alteration chance within organisations ( Judson, 1991 ) . Engagement may besides ensue in better solutions.

Harmonizing to Marchington and Wilkinson ( 2000 ) , direct engagement patterns are divided into four classs: down communications, up job resolution, undertaking engagement, team-working and self-management. The efficiency of direct engagement as a alteration scheme is based on the premise that it will non give addition to the struggle with other organisational or personal ends. However, engagement requires a willingness by decision makers to portion the decision-making with subsidiaries, and that these employees are willing to portion duty for the determination ( Bartkus, 1997 ) . Furthermore, Boyle ( 1998 ) contended that true engagement depends on the director ‘s competency in using procedure accomplishments.

The significance of Engagement:

Harmonizing to Gove ( 1986 ) engagement is action or state of affairs of take parting as in the state of affairs of engagement in something or engagement with others in a relationship on committedness. It besides means the action or state of affairs of taking portion with others in an activity for the benefit of the community. Furthermore, Erwin ( 1976 ) stated that “ Participation ” is the procedure that can give chances to people to bring forth and use advanced thought every bit good as buttocks the consequence. It besides has another construct of engagement as deep feeling inside people ‘s heads.

The stairss of Engagement:

Cohen and Uphoff ( 1980 ) created the processing construction of Participation as follows:

1. Engagement in decision-making: consists of three steps- first starts to do determination, secondly decide to do determination and last decode to pattern.

2. Engagement in execution: consists of back uping the direction beginning and cooperation.

3. Engagement in benefits

4. Engagement in ratings

The significance of Environment:

Suteela Toolyasatien and et.al. ( 2001 ) defined “ Environment ” as a nature-made object and a semisynthetic object that were applicable and non-applicable. It is besides everything that exists about worlds ‘ existences and non-being which can be influentially related. Environment is a rhythm where the whole system is related. Another word is “ they are things around us ” . Furthermore, “ Environmental direction ” is defined by Kasem Chankaew ( 1993 ) as a procedure of apportioning, bettering, mending and commanding of natural and semisynthetic resources in environment system, in order to do it sustainable and hearty basic demands of worlds.

Environmental direction

During the 1980s and 1990s, environmental jobs have come to impact a wider assortment of industries, until now most industries are still affected. For the job work outing to be effectual, the execution of environmental policies must come from the top. If there is no committedness at the highest degree of the company, it is so hard for thoughts to be improved increasingly.

It is likely to see environmental direction as a hierarchy of policies and actions:

– Global environmental policies

– National environmental policies

– Duty of concern

– Local action Environmental jobs must be attempted at all of these degrees.

There is a demand for planetary policy devising and mark scene, such as the Montreal Protocol of 1987, which set marks for CFC emanations ( Kirk, 1995 ) . The primary practical consequence was the development of a guidebook on environmental direction for hotels. Recently, the Hotel Catering & A ; Institutional Management Association ( HCIMA ) and the World Travel and Tourism Council have launched a plan on environmental direction consciousness. The plan, known as “ Green Globe ” , has as its chief end taking to give practical recommendations which cordial reception companies can transport out ( HCIMA, 1994 ) .

The studies in the USA, tried to sort consumer attitudes to cordial reception and the environment. A figure of US hotel groups have caused consumer involvement on environmental policies and operations 75 per cent of clients, as consumers on environmentally minded and 54 per cent of clients showed that they were environmentally minded travellers and they would wish to remain in hotels that show duty for the environment ( Watkins, 1994 ) . The construct of hotel categorization based on environmental testing has besides been developed in some parts such as Thailand ( Goodno, 1993 ) .

Benefits from Good Environmental direction

1. Reducing the impact from environmental ingestion

2. Reducing production costs

3. Pull offing hotel ‘s environment consistently

4. Supplying better environmental workplace

5. Reducing environmental intervention cost

6. Enhancing and advancing better concern image

7. Long -term cost salvaging the resource

8. Bettering the market portion within green concern

Related research

– Literature in Thailand

Vitsuta Boonme ( 2005 ) studied on the subject of “ Hotel forces engagement in solid waste separation: A Case Study of Hotels in Bangkok. ” The standards variables in this research are sex, age, instruction ; place, working continuance and cognition degree. As the consequence, from the attitude and degree of engagement rating harmonizing to variables. The consequence showed that adult females have a more positive attitude than work forces. Work force had different engagement in waste separation more than adult females. A comparative analysis was done to prove attitude and engagement. There was found that employees with different instruction degree, it can impact different attitude and engagement in waste separation. Employees who got a unmarried man ‘s grade, they have more positive attitude than employees who finished lower 1. The consequence of variable dealingss found that age and cognition were positively correlated to attitude and engagement. However, the working continuance was non correlated to attitude and engagement. The consequence from this research found that person ‘s engagement was positively related to attitude.

Datas required:

The consequences of this research are realized in the hotel employees ‘ attitude and engagement in environmental direction. In order to accomplish the environmental policies of hotel, employees as a driver hence, the executives ‘ should cognize employee attitude and engagement.

Datas beginnings:

The information beginnings for this research consist of two parts. The primary informations is from information collected straight from the hotel employees of Novotel Bangkok Hotel. The secondary informations are information used to back up this research. They were collected from literature reviewed from theories, books, diaries and information in line with the hotel industry.

Data aggregation technique ( s ) :

This survey is about Hotel Employees Attitude and Participation in Environmental Management: A Case Study of Novotel Bangkok Hotel, Thailand. It is a study where research informations will be utilizing quantitative research analysis. The tool used is a questionnaire to roll up informations from the hotel employees. Questionnaire is one of the most normally used tools for informations aggregation in research ( Veal, 2005 ) .

A missive will be sent from the module of International Hotel and Tourism Management, Nasesuan University to the Executive Director of the hotel to give permission in roll uping informations. The population sample is the hotel employee in Novotel Bangkok Hotel in Siam Square about 114 people from 530 people. This sample size is determined by ciphering with Yamane ( 1967 ) expression.

n = N

1+ N ( vitamin E ) A?

n = sample size

N = sum of population

vitamin E = 95 % degree of confidential, 0.05 mistake

Calculating in the expression

n = 530

1+530 ( 0.05 ) A?

= 228

Therefore, the sample size in this research is 114 employees because this is a little hunt that collects the informations merely 50 per centum of sample sizes in informations aggregation. The questionnaire will be Thai linguistic communications because most of employees are Tai people who had really small English comprehension and would easy accommodate with each employee. There will be 114 questionnaires that will be given to 114 people. Each questionnaire will be divided into the undermentioned subdivisions:

Part 1: is the personal information of the trying group.

Part 2: is the attitude measuring of trying group about environmental direction by Likert ‘s Method of measuring. It consists of 5 picks ; really equal, equal, non certain, unequal and really unequal.

Part 3: is the engagement measuring in environmental direction by stopping point ended inquiries with employees ‘ engagement. To mensurate the degree of engagement by utilizing 1 for participated and 0 for non participated.

Datas analysis:

After informations had been collected, the questionnaire will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to prove and find the statistical values. Descriptive analysis is used for agreement of information in footings of per centum, mean and standard divergence ( S.D ) . Furthermore, there will be a comparing of the average difference between the variables. If there are two groups, analysis will be done by utilizing t-test, but if there are more than two groups, analysis of Discrepancy: ANOVA will be used alternatively.