Crime Theories Related To Tourism Tourism Essay

There is an extended theory of offense and offense bar steps. This is supported by Holcomb who states that several incorporate theories were developed from the field of criminology. The theoretical footing was drawn from many different subjects such as legal surveies, psychological science, biological science and sociology ( Holcomb, 2004 ) .

Although there is an extended research on offense and its theories, the 1s that enlighten on the relationship between touristry and offense are limited. This point is besides supported by Pizam ( 1996 ) , who states that there are limited empirical surveies which explained the relationship between touristry and offense.

Among the available theories of offense, two theories peculiarly relates to the relationship between touristry and offense. Obviously, Anuar, Jaini, Kamarudin and Nasir ( 2011 ) , Breetzke and Horn ( 2009 ) , Crotts ( 1996 ) , Holcomb ( 2004 ) , and Williams ( 2010 ) are among the research workers whom had studied on offense and touristry and included these two theories in their research. These theories are the Routine Activity Theory and the Hot Spot Theory. Therefore, in order to to the full understand the SCP and its benefits to tourist, it is necessary to research these two theories in more deepness as these theories could offer possible penetrations into the relationship between touristry and offense.

Sing the Everyday Activity Theory, it provides a wide position on offense ( Felson & A ; Cohen, 1979 ) . Harmonizing to this theory, the alterations in the everyday activities of one ‘s mundane life can take to criminalism. This theory besides explains that differences in societal and economic conditions can act upon the overall offense and victimization rate. Apart from that, this theory besides suggests that, in order for a offense to happen, three elements must take topographic point in clip and infinite. The three elements are a suited mark, a motivated wrongdoer, and the absence of a capable defender ( Felson & A ; Cohen, 1979 ) . In footings of suited mark, Felson and Cohen ( 1979 ) found that, the more vulnerable the mark is, the more likely that offense will happen. The 2nd component refers to a motivated wrongdoer, whereby, it really refers to person who has adopted a condemnable life style. Lastly is a comparative absence of capable guardian, whereby the definition of defenders in this instance refers to a physical visual aspect of a individual, or in the signifier of devices such as CCTV or security system ( Felson & A ; Cohen, 1979 ) .

In add-on, the Hot Spot theory is another criminology theory associating to touristry. This theory found that there are specific topographic points that provide a topographic point of chances in which marauding offenses can happen ( Crotts, 1996 ) . This theory farther suggests that the bunch in a few specific topographic points is where the tourers are at a greater hazard of being a victim of offense ( Crotts, 1996 ) . Harmonizing to Crotts ( 1996 ) , the specific topographic points provide an environment in which value, visibleness and handiness of the tourer mark are high among motivated wrongdoers. Furthermore, these specific topographic points besides allow for the easy chance to get away one time the offense has occurred. Example of the offense hot musca volitanss in touristry is such topographic points which have bars, cabarets, and strip articulations providing to tourers ( Ryan & A ; Kinder, 1996 ) .


Tourist victimization is besides an of import subject to look into as condemnable victimization could impact a individual ‘s physical and mental wellness ( Walker, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Chesney-Lind and Lind ( 1986 ) tourists become victims of offense for a figure of grounds:

They are recognizable by their vesture, whereby they tend to have on apparels that has a caption such as “ I love Bali ” or apparels that are non usually found in the host state.

They normally bring rather an sum of money, and besides expensive points such as cameras and jewelry.

They frequently engaged in other activities such as embarking unwittingly into parts of the country which occupants consider unsafe.

They are normally relaxed, away guard and unaware because they are excessively caught up with the attractive forces of the finish.

They are impermanent visitants to the communities which they are non familiar with.

They are improbable to describe offense and return as informants at test as it is both hard and expensive to return to the finish.

In line with the theory, Harper ( 2000 ) besides states that tourer is easy to place, by looking at how they dress and besides their behavior and unfamiliar with their milieus and local people.

Sing tourer victimization, a figure of surveies have shown that the rate of tourers ‘ offense experience, largely larceny, larceny, and robbery, are higher than that experienced by the local occupants ( Barker, Page, & A ; Meyer, 2002 ; Chesney-Lind & A ; Lind, 1986 ; de Albuquerque & A ; McElroy, 1999 ; Fujii & A ; Mak, 1980 ; Harper, 2001 ) .

However, there is a restriction among the literature whereby the research workers did non place the victim ‘s features and distinguish them as to whether they are really tourers or merely visitants. On the other manus, merely Chesney-Lind and Lind ( 1986 ) and de Albuquerque and McElroy ( 1999 ) distinguish the tourers from occupants. However, they were unable to place any specific features of the victims.

Sing the research done by de Albuquerque and McElroy ( 1999 ) . They did a survey of analyzing the constabulary studies in Caribbean finishs. Their findings show that there were different types of offense which were likely to be experienced by occupants and tourers. The occupants are significantly more likely to be a victim of violent offense. Meanwhile, tourers are significantly more likely to see robbery and belongings offense.

Contradictory to the findings of the old research workers mentioned, Mawby, Brunt and Hambly ( 1999 ) who did an exploratory survey of offense against tourers in Britain found that tourers barely fall victim to offense. Merely 50 respondents out of 514 respondents had been a victim of offense on their last vacation. However, their findings still suggest that tourers are vulnerable to exploitation, and are besides affected by their offense experiences.

Similarly, Barker et. , ( 2002 ) examines tourer and finish offense rates. More specifically, the research is based on the hosting of a particular event which is the America ‘s Cup in the twelvemonth 2000. They review literature of different background in societal scientific discipline, viz. of the touristry research on particular events and offense, offense research that has referred to touristry, and the wider criminology literature in relation to victimization. Their consequences indicate that the tourer features, such as age, adjustment pick and the figure of going comrades affect their hazards of going a victim of offense.


The term ‘Fear of Crime ‘ has been used in criminology research since the 1960s ( George, 2003 ) . However, despite the broad literature on fright of offense, there has been a argument around what the term truly means. Over the old ages, the term fright of offense has been used to specify different things such as on the emotional provinces, attitudes and including perceptual experiences such as misgiving of others, anxiousness, perceived hazard, fright of aliens, or concern about deteriorating countries ( Warr, 2000 ) . There is no specific definition for this term, but it is widely used as an instrument for exploitation studies ( British Crime Survey,1982 ) .

Mentioning to the British Crime Survey, the instruments were aimed at acquiring responses on respondents experiencing of safe or insecure while in certain state of affairss such as when walking in the metropolis or when utilizing public conveyance. A figure of studies and research had used these instruments to mensurate the fright of offense such as George ( 2003 ) and Evans and Fletcher ( 2000 ) . However, due to the arguable and subjective definition, the research worker will merely be utilizing the term ‘feeling safe ‘ in order to contract down the definition.

Harmonizing to George ( 2003 ) , if a tourer feels insecure or threatened at a finish, they will hold a negative perceptual experience about the finish itself. On the contrary, if a tourer feels safe at a finish, they will hold a positive perceptual experience of the finish. This is in line with Sonmez and Graefe ( 1998 ) findings, recognizing that feeling of safety during travel have a strong influence on the turning away of certain finishs. Furthermore, George ( 2003 ) besides found that tourers might non take portion in activities if they feel insecure in a peculiar finish.

In add-on, Boakye ( 2012 ) studied on tourers ‘ positions on safety and exposure in Ghana. He had found that tourers felt most insecure at attractive force sites as compared to adjustment and in unfastened infinites. Interestingly, it emerged that the tourers barely mentioned the presence or visibleness of jurisprudence enforcement bureaus when placing what made them experience safe. This determination appears to dispute the premise that tourers will experience secure when there is grounds of uniformed security ( Boakye, 2012 ) .

Meanwhile, George ( 2003 ) investigated the tourer perceptual experience of offense and safety while sing Cape Town. He found that 36 % of the respondents are hesitating to walk in the streets of Cape Town after dark. He besides found that about 20 % of the respondents felt insecure and a farther 41.2 % were diffident about how safe they felt when utilizing the public conveyance in the metropolis. Furthermore, this determination is besides in line with the research by Demos who found that 38.8 % of visitants felt insecure after dark in Washington ( Demos, 1992 ) .

Aside from that, George ( 2003 ) besides seeks to happen out if there is a relationship between specific demographic features and tourers ‘ perceptual experiences of safety in Cape Town. The findings suggest that during their visits, older tourers were more likely to experience safer than younger tourers. George ( 2003 ) suggested several grounds for the findings. First, it may be because younger tourers normally venture out in the eventide, and therefore feels insecure. Second, older tourers are more experient and wise. Last, older tourers stayed at resorts and hotels whereby younger tourers stayed in backpacker adjustment in less safe countries.

Additionally, an interesting determination of George ( 2003 ) is that gender is non a important factor impacting tourist perceptual experience of safety in Cape Town. This consequence contradicts the findings of Demos ( 1992 ) who found that adult females were far more cautious on walking the streets of Washington after dark. This is besides in line with Amir, Ismail, Hanafiah and Baba ( 2012 ) who studied on foreign tourers ‘ perceptual experience on the safety and security steps in Kuala Lumpur. They found that safety concern is outstanding among female tourers.

Furthermore, Barker et al. , ( 2002 ) besides studied on the relationship between demographic features and tourers perceptual experience of safety. Their consequences indicate that the difference in tourers ethnicity, age, adjustment pick, communicating accomplishments and the figure of going comrades affects tourers ‘ perceptual experiences of offense and safety.

Sing a survey by Lepp and Gibson ( 2003 ) , they found that the feeling of safety felt by tourer during their stay will find their willingness to revisit the finish. However, an interesting determination by Brunt, Mawby and Hambly ( 2000 ) is that tourers would still return to the finish if they experience personal larceny or known person who has had such an experience. This was supported by George ( 2010 ) who found that irrespective of tourer perceptual experience of the Table Mountain National Park to be an insecure environment, they are still willing to revisit and urge the attractive force to others. This is besides consistent with a survey done by George ( 2003 ) who found that tourers would still return to the finish if they feel insecure at the finish.


From the writer ‘s reappraisal of related literature, there is limited academic research analyzing on security steps and experiencing safe. On the other manus, the bulk of work associating to security steps and experiencing safe are really studies, in which to happen out the public perceptual experience of safety. However, there are a few bing surveies that examine security steps and fright of offense. This literature reappraisal is deserving looking into as the inquiries on experiencing safe is really used by public studies to mensurate fright of offense. Furthermore, the reappraisal of security steps and its consequence on fright of offense are related to the present survey, which is happening out tourers perceived effectivity of the SCP offense bar steps in doing tourist feel safer.

Based on the findings, some of the surveies found there is an addition in fright of offense with security consciousness ( Barbaret & A ; Fisher, 2009 ; Ditton, 2000 ; Nelson, 1998 ; Williams & A ; Ahmed, 2009 ) . The consequence is besides in line with Gill and Spriggs ( 2005 ) who studied on a major rating of CCTV at 14 sites across England and Wales. From their findings, seemingly, people did non experience safer with the CCTV installing at the sites. This contradicts the chief aims of CCTV, which is to cut down fright of offense or increasing the feeling of safe among the populace. On the contrary, from the findings, those who were more cognizant of the installing of CCTV were more disquieted about offense. The consequence may be due to the manner whereby most of the populace will presume that if there is a demand for offense bar steps, so it is an index of a offense hot spot ( Whattam, 2011 ) .

Conversely, some of the findings from the perceptual experiences of the public towards offense bar schemes were in line with the aim of cut downing the fright of offense or doing people experience safer. Nasar and Fisher ( 1993 ) found that people perceive that a well-lit country is less unsafe than one that is dark. An analysis to measure street lightings in United States and United Kingdom found that the presence of illuming could cut down fright and besides offense ( Farrington & A ; Welsh, 2002 ) . In contrast, past surveies by Evans, Fyfe, and Herbert ( 1992 ) and Ramsay and Newton ( 1991 ) found that illuming did non cut down offense, but merely fright of offense.

Besides some of the offense bar steps that were mentioned, there are a few surveies looking into touristry and offense bar steps. It was found that a good perceptual experience of safety, which makes tourers experience safe, could be increased by the presence and interaction between the constabulary and the community ( Pizam, Tarlow & A ; Bloom, 1997 ; Tarlow, 2000 ) . Due to the limited survey on happening out tourers perceived effectivity of offense bar steps, it is hoped that the present survey could add to this organic structure of cognition, by looking into the tourers positions of the offense bar steps that would do them experience safer.


The limited public consciousness of a programme has been one of the barriers for a successful execution of offense bar enterprises ( Roberts & A ; Grossman 1989 ) . In relation to the job of limited public consciousness, Roberts and Hastings ( 2007 ) reexamine public sentiment and offense bar internationally, whereby one of the countries of their reappraisal was looking at the recent tendencies in public consciousness of offense bar. From their findings, Canada and United Kingdom portion lower rates of public consciousness of the specific offense bar programmes. Furthermore, they found that a survey in Canada, based on nationally representative samples of 2000 and 2003 shows a downward tendency for consciousness whereby about 40 % reported general consciousness of bar plans ( Ekos Research Associates 2000 & A ; Ekos Research Associates 2004a ) .

There are a figure of ways to mensurate public consciousness of offense bar plans and schemes. The ways the inquiry is addressed can act upon the reply. This is in line with a study conducted for the Alberta Community Crime Prevention Association, which asked a general inquiry to the respondents on whether they are cognizant of offense bar schemes ( Anderson-Draper Consulting, 2004 ) . From their findings, 60 % of the sample are cognizant, ensuing in a high degree of consciousness.

However, general inquiries of this nature may uncover more about attitudes than existent consciousness, as respondents were non asked to place the specific offense bar programmme or schemes of which they were cognizant of ( Roberts and Hastings, 2007 ) . Hence, another attack to mensurate public consciousness of offense bar programme was used by Ekos Research Associates ( 2000 ) . In add-on to the general inquiry, the respondents were asked to call one of the offense bar programme which they are cognizant of. Similarly, a survey by Anuar ( 2008 ) asked the tourers ‘ on their consciousness of a specific programme, viz. the Safe City Programme. Although this step is similar to a general inquiry, it is more specific to merely one offense bar programme.

Therefore, after considerations on the different attacks to mensurate respondents ‘ consciousness, the research worker opted the steps undertaken by Anuar ( 2008 ) which asked about the specific consciousness of the Safe City Programme. However, in response to the inquiry, the respondents will so be asked to rate their consciousness degree on a figure of offense bar schemes in the Safe City Programme. This attack is taken in order to cognize about tourer existent consciousness of the programme, whereby tourers might be cognizant of the offense bar schemes under this programme, but was unaware of the being of the programme itself.


The old subdivision of the literature reappraisal had provided an thought of the general surveies on offense bar programme. Meanwhile, this subdivision will specifically look at the range of the survey, which is the Safe City Programme ( SCP ) .

First, a expression into the broader position of SCP is needed. SCP was foremost introduced and launched in 1996, at the international degree by United Nations Human Settlements Programme ( UN-Habitat ) . Whereby, Johannesburg, Dar Es Salaam and Nairobi are among the metropoliss which has executed this programme. Harmonizing to UN-Habitat, the chief aim of SCP is to construct capacities at the metropolis degree to adequately address urban insecurity and contribute to the constitution of a civilization of bar.

Furthermore, there are three attacks to SCP which is a primary bar scheme through planing the physical environment ; secondary bar scheme through heightening societal behavior for both condemnable and offense victims and formal preventing scheme through the penalty done straight towards the condemnable histrions ( UN-Habitat, n.d. ) .

In Malaysia, Safe City Programme ( SCP ) is defined as a metropolis that is free from all physical, societal and mental menaces ( JBPD, 2006 ) . The SCP is launched in Malaysia by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government ( KPKT ) on the 10th of August 2004 ( Anuar, 2011 ) . The purpose of this plan is to heighten the population quality of life and besides to increase the degree of safety among tourer within the metropolis country ( Anuar, 2010 ) . The SCP is implemented utilizing the guidelines provided by JBPD which consists of 23 steps of offense bar steps through three of import schemes which is presented in Table 2.1.

As was mentioned, RM110 million had been invested in the SCP ( Government Transformation Programme, 2012 ) . Specifically, in Kuala Lumpur entirely, an allotment of 10 million had been disbursed by the ministry in order to put up the 23 offense bar steps under the three schemes which are Environmental Design Initiatives, Target Hardening and Society Education.

There are a figure of research looking into the Safe City Programme in Malaysia. However, the bing research is merely limited to analyzing the populace ‘s effectivity of SCP towards forestalling offense in the vicinity ( Mohit & A ; Elsawahli, 2010 ; Mustaffa, 2007 ) .

However, Anuar and Khalifah ( 2009 ) had studied on the importance of the SCP as a footing of touristry safety in Johor Bahru. They had found that, the most of import offense bar steps of SCP is the installing of CCTV in Johor Bahru. Tourists feel that the step would vouch their safety while they are in Johor Bahru ( Anuar & A ; Khalifah, 2009 ) .

Another survey which is by Anuar et al. , ( 2011 ) explores on the most of import step of offense bar and the effectivity of SCP in Putrajaya and found that the effectivity of offense bar step at Putrajaya is wavering. Therefore, this survey would take into the research done by Anuar & A ; Khalifah ( 2009 ) with a different range of the survey on Kuala Lumpur and a different unit of analysis which consists of international tourers, instead than domestic tourers.

Table 2.1

List of SCP Strategies and Crime Prevention Measures


Environmental Design Enterprises


Segregation of Pedestrian Walkways and Motorways

Preparation of Bollards

Control Landscape Crops along Pedestrian Walkways

Crime Prevention Research Through Environmental Design

Sharing Crime Information through GIS Based Maping

Revision of Housing Arrangement Guidelines

Target Hardening

Police Booth

Crime Reminder Sign Board

Safety Mirror

Security Alarm

Washing / Cleaning Cluttered and Hidden Areas

Motorcycle Locked Parking Base

Installation of Closed Circuit Television ( CCTV )

Lights Installation at Business Premises ‘ Walks

Public Pathways that are non Sheltered or Obstructed from Public View

Lighting Crime Targeted Area

Obstruct Business Activities and Park Car at the Pedestrian Walkways

Generate Variety of Business Activities

Private Security Guard Service

Social Activities/Society Education/Public



Installation of Lighting at Side Lanes, Front and Back Yard

Preparation of Community Crime Booklet

Increase Patrolling in Housing Area

2.7 Satisfaction

Wehmeier ( 1997 ) defined satisfaction as a good feeling when you got what you expect to acquire. From the touristry position, satisfaction is chiefly referred to as a map of pre-travel outlooks and post-travel experiences ( Reisinger & A ; Turner, 2003 ; Truong & A ; Foster, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Reisinger and Turner ( 2003 ) , when tourer experiences compared to outlooks consequence in feelings of satisfaction, the tourer is satisfied and leave that finish with good recollection.

Kozak and Rimmington ( 2000 ) emphasis on the importance of satisfaction towards a successful finish selling. Furthermore, it is known that satisfaction affects the choice of finish, purchasing goods and services at a finish, and purpose to revisit ( Kozak & A ; Rimmington, 2000 ) . As a effect, client satisfaction has been a common subject of research because of its possible influence on the consumer behavior and trueness ( Cronin & A ; Brady, 2000 ) .

As has been mentioned, satisfaction is a common research explored by research workers. Therefore, the literature on satisfaction displayed an extended fluctuation in the figure and nature of properties considered relevant to tourist satisfaction with finishs. For illustration, the properties that were largely used for a Sun and sand finish were measured utilizing properties such as the satisfaction with the clime, the beaches, the quality of the hotels, the landscapes, and the safety of the finish ( Aguilo , Alegre & A ; Sard, 2005 ; Alegre and Cladera, 2006 ; Kozak & A ; Remmington, 2000 ; Mangion, Durbarry & A ; Sinclair, 2005 ; Yoon & A ; Uysal, 2005 ) .

Conversely, a survey on tourer outlook and satisfaction on Antalya, which is an urban touristry finish, incorporated 18 properties of satisfaction which consists of adjustment services, cultural values, nutrient and drink services, historic sites, nature, rightness for household vacations, agencies of transit, cleanliness, shopping chances, culinary art, cultural and artistic activities, athleticss activities, conformance to hygiene regulations, communicating with the local population, reachability of Antalya metropolis, handiness of tourer information, personal safety and cordial reception to mensurate satisfaction ( Aksu, A°cigen & A ; Ehtiyar, 2010 ) .

Furthermore, based on the reappraisal of past literatures, client satisfaction can be assessed with a individual point, which measures the overall satisfaction ( Bigne Sanchez & A ; Sanchez. , 2001 ; Fornell, 1992 ; Spreng & A ; Mackoy, 1996 ) . However, since this survey merely looks into tourist perceptual experience of safety, the research worker will merely mensurate on tourer satisfaction of safety at the finish, since, safety and security are one of the basic outlooks of tourers. Furthermore, from the research workers reappraisal of tourist satisfaction of a finish, most research workers incorporate the properties of safety to mensurate tourist satisfaction with the finish ( Aksu, A°cigen & A ; Ehtiyar, 2010 ; Kozak & A ; Remmington, 2000 ; Yoon & A ; Uysal, 2005 ) .

Some of the findings on the broad arrays of surveies on satisfaction found a important influence of visit experience and the degrees of tourer satisfaction ( Opperman, 1996 ) . In a similar survey, Master and Prideaux ( 2000 ) found a important influence of age, gender, business and old travel on the satisfaction degrees

Last, in the context of Malaysia, a survey by Amir et al. , ( 2012 ) found that tourers perceived Bukit Bintang as a safe topographic point to see and gave a good evaluation in footings of the safety steps adopted in the country. This implies that the tourers are satisfied with the safety in Bukit Bintang.

2.8 Decision

It is deserving adverting that although the geographic expedition on the reappraisals are non considered as profoundly thorough, nevertheless the past literatures highlighted were sufficient plenty in happening the spread of the survey. With that, the methodological analysis applied in this present survey is discussed in the undermentioned chapter.