Impact Of Casino Gambling On Crime In Singapore Tourism Essay

Gambling is an illegal activity in Singapore. Under the Singapore jurisprudence, merely those with licences such as, Singapore Pools and The Singapore Turf Club are lawfully to offer chancing to the populace. Sport betting, horseracing, and lottery bets are merely allow for individuals of age 21 and supra. In 2006, Singapore authorities decided to let two new Integrated Resorts, the Marina Bay Sand and Resorts World Sentosa with casinos. The authorities believes that these two Integrated Resorts would supply a strong encouragement to the economic system and occupation chance to the state. The determination by the Singapore authorities to put up two incorporate resorts with casinos has stirred up some argument among its citizens. Some people think that holding casinos could intend more people chancing and acquiring themselves or their households involved in problem such as offense. In add-on, societal jobs like bankruptcy, divorce, self-destruction, income loss and job gaming may besides be increased after a casino was introduced in Singapore.

Singapore has merely officially opened its two casinos in February and April 2010. The authorities has enhanced the ordinance of casino gaming in order to extenuate the negative effects of chancing. The new casino chancing Torahs has provided a figure of societal precautions to forestall Singapore citizens and lasting occupants from going job gamblers. These societal precautions include entry levies, recognition and loss bounds, self-exclusion order and protection of bush leagues ( MCYS 2005 ) .

Aims

Harmonizing to The Straits Times ( 2004 ) , Singapore has become No.3 in the universe in footings of chancing per capital without a casino. Many Singaporean like to go to Genting Highland ( Malaysia ) and gamble at its casino. Some on them would besides travel on Star Cruise to seek out their fortune on the limited figure of slots and chancing tabular arraies. Gambling is non new to the mean Singaporean but holding a casino is a comparatively new phenomenon in Singapore. Hence, this proposed research will concentrate on the relationship between casinos and offense in Singapore. The research will besides measure the quality of life before and after the casinos opened in Singapore, and step the effectivity of societal precautions. A study will be conducted to find the public perceptual experiences of alterations in offense and the quality of life that may hold accompanied the coming of casinos. In add-on, qualitative informations reflecting quality of life will be gathered from interviews of community leaders, constabulary officers, bourgeoiss and societal service suppliers. Finally, recommendations for actions to assist to battle casino gambling-related offense will besides be discussed in the research. The followerss are some hypotheses ( H ) that I will be investigate in this research:

H1. Casinos chancing addition offense.

H2. Casinos chancing have negative effects on quality of life.

H3. Higher casino levy will non be more effectual in discouraging job gamblers.

Literature Review

Casinos are frequently associated with condemnable activity. A figure of surveies in the United States and Canada that have analyzed the relationship between casino gaming and offense have yield contradictory and inconclusive consequences. Grinols wrote the article: Casino chancing causes offense in 2000 and he has pointed out that the grounds in his research has shown that casino chancing causes important additions in offense. Harmonizing to the article, a figure of pathological gamblers have lost control over their gaming behaviour, personal lives and occupation. They relied on other to supply money to alleviate a despairing fiscal state of affairs caused by chancing. Furthermore, some of them got themselves involved in illegal activities. One of survey gamblers in intervention found that 62 per centum committed offenses because of their gaming and about 400 members of Gamblers anon. showed that 57 per centum admitted stealing to finance their gaming ( E.L.Grinols 2000 ) . The survey proves that casino chancing related to offense.

In the same twelvemonth, Grinols conducted a research ( Casinos, Crime and Community Costs, June 2000 ) with Professor David Mustard, Cynthia Hunt Dilley to analyze offense statistics for all 3,165 counties in the United States from 1977 to 1996. They looked at local offense rates before and after casinos opened. The information shows that offense rate increased after the casino had begun operation in the bulk of the casino counties. However, the informations besides indicate that there was no important rise in offense rates for the first three old ages after casino opened and the offense rates began to lift in casino counties after three old ages. The survey concludes that the offense rate in the casino counties is higher than counties without casino. Las Vegas, for illustration, the offense rate is higher than other counties.

This survey has certain restrictions that need to be taken into history when sing its part. There are many strengths and restrictions of official statistics ( offense statistics ) . They offer the chance to place tendencies in offense overtime every bit good as expression at more than merely the offense committed by job and pathological gamblers. However, these informations merely show the rate of recorded offenses and they may non be an accurate contemplation to the existent offense being committed in society. In add-on, research worker may besides happen it hard to analyse the portion of offense related to casinos from the mass of other offense that occurs all the clip. It is hard to turn out that the coming of casino has the direct effects on offense. Therefore, research workers have to acquire assorted beginnings in order to turn out the cogency and dependability of their survey.

Grinols and Mustard did another the survey in February 2006 on “ Casinos, Crime, and Community Costs ” . The survey is a singular part to the gaming literature. The survey provide as elaborate treatment of theoretical connexion between casinos and offense. The writers discuss two possible factors through which casinos may cut down offense. First, if casinos provide labour market for low-skilled workers, offense may fall. Second, economic growing effects attributable to casino chancing that could cut down offense.

On the other manus, they besides discuss the five possible negative effects of casinos on offense. First, casinos drain the local economic system of resources and may harm economic development. Second, casinos may lend to an increased offense final payment. Third, casinos may increase the figure of pathological gamblers, and this can take to more offense. Fourth, casinos may besides pull condemnable activities, ensuing in more offense. Finally, casinos may bring on a alteration in local population, towards one more apt to perpetrate offenses. Harmonizing to the consequence of the survey, casino gaming has generated outwardness costs, and offense is one of the biggest constituents of these societal costs. Grinols and Mustard believe that the societal costs of casinos are greater than benefits.

Joseph Friedman, Simon Hakim and J. Weinblatt did a survey in 1989 on “ Casino gaming as ‘growth pole ‘ scheme and its consequence on offense ” . They have found that casinos had increased the degree of offense in Atlantic City. Another survey, done in 1989 by Simon Hakim, Andrew J. Buck and Uriel Spiegel, centered on Atlantic City and 64 communities in environing country. They assume that casinos in an countries increase the offense rate in that country. Based on their ( Hakim and Buck ) theory, the gap of a new public country such as casino will pull attending that is more public and create chances for condemnable.

However, Eadington ( 1996 ) argues that the debut of subject Parkss or resorts into an country could hold similar negative effects as do casinos on the country ‘s offense. For illustration, the offense rate has been increased after the Mall of America ( super-regional shopping promenade ) opened in Bloomington, Minnesota ( R.Garcia, & A ; L. Nicholls 1995 ) . Hence, Eadington ( 1995, p7 ) has concluded that “ there is no compelling grounds that offense rates in metropoliss with casinos are much different than in metropoliss with tourer attractive forces in general ” . His statement is similar to Hakim and Buck ‘s theory but he suggest that the offense rate increased is non due to the casino per Se.

Scott T. Horn, a New York civil entreaties attorney disagrees with Hakim and Buck ‘s theory. He did a survey on “ Casinos and Crime: Do n’t Bet On it ” in 1997, which concluded that there is likely no relationship between casinos chancing and entire offense rate. To get the better of the failings of the Hakim-Buck theoretical account, Scott develop a theoretical account to foretell the casino chancing on offense rate by utilizing informations from offense statistics and FBI ‘s Crime Report. Harmonizing to his theory, metropoliss with important figure of casinos, the addition in casinos, which would in bend addition in offense rate, would hold small impacts on overall offense rates. This is because there has been a diminution in the freshness consequence. The consequences and decision of the survey differed from the surveies that I have mentioned earlier. Horn ( 1997, p4 ) concludes that, “ the consequence of casinos on offense will diminish at a diminishing rate with each extra casino opened in any given part ” . Las Vegas has over 250 casinos, Macau has 28, Singapore has two now. Based on Horn ‘s theory, the consequence of casinos on offense rate in Singapore would be more important than Las Vegas or Macau when a casino foremost unfastened in Singapore. However, the offense rate would diminish with the gap of second or even the 3rd casino.

Few surveies have besides examined the effects of casinos on offense. Those surveies that have analyzed the relationship between casino gaming and offense have yielded contradictory consequences. Most of them are utilizing obscure mentions to study or notional figures to back up their claims. U.S News & A ; World Report execute a “ computing machine analysis ” and shows that town with casinos have experienced a rise in offense at the same clip it was dropping for the state as a whole ( S.T.Horn 1997 ) . However, in footings of cogency, the present consequence may non be accurate and sensible reliable because the study ne’er mentioned on how the computing machine analyzed the informations.

There are many surveies focus on the relationship between casino gaming and offense in the United States, merely a smattering of surveies have examined the casino gaming in Asia. Macau is openly known as a casino province in Asia. It has more than 30 casinos and 4,600 gambling tabular arraies, which has overtaken Las Vegas in footings of gambling gross ( China Daily, 2009 ) . However, the entire figure of offense in this island metropolis has increased from 4,717 in 1987 to 8,576 in 1996 over the last decennary. Crime rate per capita has increased from 14.11 per 1,000 people in 1987 to 20.62 per 1,000 people in 1996 ( S.H. Lo 2005 ) . This has created a serious societal jobs straight affect the occupants ‘ day-to-day life. Nevertheless, the offense statistics may non be able to reflect the world as some people may non describe the offense because of the complicated processs and clip wasted.

Despite the proliferation of legalized casino chancing in Asia, Europe and United States, it remains controversial with respect to both its consequence on offense every bit good as its effects on the diverse socio-economic facets of the community. Harmonizing to a survey ( H. Lesieur 1996 ) on chancing and offense, a heavy concentration of casinos in an country is associated with tourism-related offense and some communities with casinos have small or no mensurable offense impact. The writer besides claims that the pathological gamblers may perpetrate offenses to finance their gaming ( H. Lesieur 1996 ) . Yet, the UCR ( Uniform Crime Reporting Survey ) steps are non precise plenty to estimate all alterations in the incidence of offense.

Casino is frequently used as a Panacea for economic ailments. Casino chancing in the United States has provided new capital investings, occupations and some grade of economic verve to countries that were in demand of economic revival ( B.G. Stitt, & A ; M. Nicholas 2000 ) . On the other manus, casinos do alter peoples ‘ form of disbursement and economy. For illustration, in 1992, a survey has reported that Americans spent more on legal chancing than on other leisure activities such as reading or watching films ( S.Simurda 1994 ) . In add-on, the impact of casinos on a community quality of life is hard to estimate. For illustration, casinos bring tourers and amusement but other recreational comfortss ( theatres, karaoke sofas, and eating houses ) bring traffic, noise and a alteration in community ‘s traditional societal and cultural environment. Whether the alteration is in positive or negative, it all depends on the person and his or her position of gaming, and the alterations it brings to a community. Ultimately, the rating of casinos ‘ impact on a state may good depend on the state ‘s pre-casino good being, every bit good as each person ‘s appraisal of the benefit and hurts that casinos bring to the state, and to each person ‘s life style ( B.G. Stitt, & A ; M. Nicholas 2000 ) .

Methodology and Data Collection

In order to bring forth a more comprehensive apprehension of the survey, a multi-method attack will be applied to analyze the immediate effects of the casino chancing on offense, quality of life, economic development, and societal costs. To analyse these issues, I have chosen Singapore where casino gaming has late been introduced. Information will be obtaining by carry oning a study and a series of in-depth interviews with selected participants. I will utilize both quantitative and qualitative informations to analyse the assorted short footings impacts that the debut of casino gaming may hold on Singapore. The undermentioned types of information will be gathered:

1. Obtaining the offense statistic from Singapore Police Force ( SPF )

2. Conducting a public sentiment study

3. Gathering the information on the offense and quality of life by questioning community leaders ( Member of Parliament ) , police officers, bourgeoiss, job gamblers, and societal service suppliers

4. Gathering informations on local quality of life from public beginnings ( e.g. , suicide information from Registry of Births and Deaths, Singapore Immigration and Registration ; bankruptcy statistic from Singapore Ministry of Law ; divorce rate from The State of the Family in Singapore Report )

5. Roll uping informations on the economic impacts of casino chancing from public informations resource such as Statistic Singapore and Singapore Ministry of Manpower

Participants need to run into two standards in order to be eligible to take portion in the study. First, the participant must be at least 21 old ages of age. Second, the participant must hold been unrecorded in Singapore for at least 5 old ages. Furthermore, research workers need to be cognizant of the ethical issues when carry oning a study and interview. All the personal information of the research participants should be kept purely confidential.

Datas on the offense rate

Crime statistics can be obtained from SPF. The offense rate is based on the entire population that comprises Singapore occupants and aliens remaining in Singapore for at least one twelvemonth. Crime classes refer to the six categories of Crimes Against Persons, Violent Property Crimes, Housebreaking and Related Crimes, Theft and Related Crimes, Commercial Crimes, and Miscellaneous Crimes. With the gap of two casinos in Singapore, an elect constabulary section has been set up to look into casino-related offense. This section would be able to supply an accurate figure of offenses attributable to casinos. Casino-related offenses will be distinguished from the overall condemnable activities.

Casinos pull a big figure of people, many of whom may be visitants from other states. Therefore, offense rates that adjusted by the local population instead than the population at hazard ( local population plus visitants ) will bias offense rate upward. To avoid this prejudice, population at hazard will be controlled by garnering informations on the figure of foreign casino visitants and these informations are routinely collected by the casinos. I will carry on the interviews with police officer in order to cognize more about latest offense tendency and increase constabulary resources sing casino gaming.

Economic factors must be considered when analyzing the relationship between casino chancing. This is because economic factors can act upon offense rates in a state. Harmonizing to the economic attack to offense, chance cost is comparative to the increased condemnable activity ( G.S. Becker 2001 ) . Difference in chances people face such as unemployment rate and average family income are the primary determiner of perpetrating a offense. For illustration, higher unemployment rate and lower average incomes are expected to be positively correlated with condemnable activity because the chance costs of captivity are lower. Similarly, offense rates are expected to be higher as the proportion of the population below the poorness line additions or during economic downswings ( B.G. Stitt, & A ; M. Nicholas 2000 ) .

Public Opinion Survey

A public sentiment study will be conducted and the study responses will be wholly anon. and voluntarily. The information collected will incorporate the perceptual experience informations and sentiment. In order to file away dependable consequences, 250 of indiscriminately selected participants ( Citizens and lasting occupants ) will be involved in the study. This study includes inquiries sing quality of life in Singapore. For illustration, respondents will be asked to measure the impact of casino chancing have on their lives in peculiar, have they perceived the alterations in offense, do they experience there is an addition in employment options, fiscal good being, and recreational chance, do they believe holding casinos is good or bad to the state, etc. These are some of the of import inquiries that provide the information that will non likely show up in an scrutiny of offense statistics.

The study will be designed to inquire inquiries in three general countries. The first country of the study will include the demographic information such as age, matrimonial position, gender, race, instruction background, and the income of the participant. The 2nd country will inquire sentiment of participants on the impact of the being casinos on Singapore. The 3rd country, participants will be asked the inquiries sing chancing behaviour ( e.g. , “ Have the participant of all time been to the casino? “ How many times do they travel in a month ” ? “ How much do they pass chancing on norm? ” ) .

Datas on Quality of life and Social Problem

Social jobs such as household disfunction, divorce, partner maltreatment, self-destruction, and bankruptcy frequently mentioned when discoursing the impact of casino gaming. These are of import determiners of the societal costs of casino gaming. Quantitative information on these variables can be obtained from the gaming related organisations and authorities sections. These include:

National Council on Problem Gambling ( NCPG ) : hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncpg.org.sg/

Register of Births & A ; Deaths Citizen Services Centre, Immigration Checkpoint Authority ( ICA ) : hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ica.gov.sg/page.aspx? pageid=144 & A ; secid=143

Ministry of Law: hypertext transfer protocol: //app2.mlaw.gov.sg/

State of Families in Singapore Report: hypertext transfer protocol: //fcd.ecitizen.gov.sg/NR/rdonlyres/19BA7E14-E7C6-464B-9251-22D3D2C559D2/0/Chpt1.pdf

Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports: hypertext transfer protocol: //app.mcys.gov.sg/web/faml_supfaml_familyservicesctr.asp

The figure of divorce, self-destruction and partners maltreatment is available on the web site mentioned above. However, it is hard to cognize the part of those caused by chancing related jobs. Therefore, personal interviews with counsellors and societal workers provide a great chance for me to measure the benefit and costs of casino gaming. In add-on, the effectivity of societal precautions can be measured through the study and interviews. Personal phone interviews with the pathological and job gamblers enable me to research their positions on casino gaming and societal precautions, every bit good as to understand the effects on the gamblers ‘ household and society. The effectivity of societal precautions can besides be measured by garnering the information from the two casinos, which provide the figure of visitants ( Citizens and permanents occupants ) .

Datas on the Economic Impact of Casino Gambling

The qualitative information will be gathered to augment information that obtained from the offense statistic and the public sentiment study. The economic impacts of casino gaming are touchable and quantifiable. Datas of the positive and negative impacts of casino chancing on revenue enhancement gross, touristry industry, other concern ( e.g. , film theatres, saloon, karaoke sofas, eating houses and retail stores ) , employment, rewards, the figure of people on public assistance and belongings values can be obtained from public records ( e.g. , tribunal records, constabulary records, condemnable records and condemnable history, apprehension records ) , Statistic Singapore, authorities sections. ( e.g. , Singapore Tourism Board and Ministry of Manpower ) . The Chamberss of commercialism, public functionaries and local concerns are valuable beginnings of information. I can garner these informations from personal or phone interviews with them. Social benefits are of import consideration when analyzing casino gaming. Questions will be focus on the positive or negative impacts of casinos to the state ‘s economic development such as substructure betterment, increased revenue enhancement gross and police resources. Tourism development and betterment of substructures are some benefits that casino gaming may supply. This type of information may non available publically but is readily available by talking with functionaries in the chamber of commercialism or community leaders.

Casino gaming may increase or diminish public assistance axial rotations. On one manus, casinos may supply occupation and cut down public assistance axial rotations. On the other manus, job gaming may take to unemployment and an addition in public assistance axial rotations. Similarly, casinos may hike the touristry industry or injury other concerns if possible clients spend their money on casino gaming. The perceptual experiences and sentiment of public functionary and bourgeoiss will supply much valuable penetration into these issues. Local media ( e.g. , journalist, newsmans ) can supply me extra information on the perceptual experiences and the impacts of casino gaming. These informations can be gathered from local newspaper or web site.

Datas Analysis

A mix of quantitative informations and qualitative informations will be gathered in this survey. The analysis of quantitative study informations and statistic informations is clip devouring hence analysis of quantitative informations will be conducted first followed by the analysis of qualitative informations.

Quantitative Data

The statistical information analysis will be used to analyze the hypotheses in the proposed research. Data on offense rate, income degree, bankruptcy, divorce, self-destruction, partner maltreatment, and public assistance axial rotations are the quantitative informations that eligible for statistical analysis. All statistical attacks will affect before and after analysis to analyze whether there have been a systematic alteration in offense and societal break following the coming of casino gaming.

Least squares arrested development analysis will be besides be employed in the survey. It helps us to understand how to typical value of the dependant variable ( offense ) alteration when any of the independent variable ( population alterations, income degrees ) is varied.

Qualitative Data

Qualitative information is used to augment the quantitative information. Information that has been obtained from the interviews with community leaders, constabulary officers, societal service suppliers, Chamberss of commercialism, bourgeoiss, and job gamblers will be analyzed through qualitative informations analysis. This is a procedure of traveling the qualitative informations that have been collected into some signifiers of reading and apprehension of the interviewees, and state of affairs we are look intoing ( N. Lewins, C.Taylor & A ; G.R.Gibbs 2005 ) .

The collected informations will be presented in tabular format. For illustration, what the proportions of societal workers feel that the casino has had a positive or negative impact on society?

What the proportion of community leaders, Chamberss of commercialism, bourgeoiss, and constabularies officers feel that the debut of casinos has had positive or negative effects on society? Is the proportion of constabulary officers that feel casino gaming has increased offense important different from the societal workers who feel that the casino has increased offense?

Time Scale & A ; Plan

This research is planned to be completed in six months. First, I will analyze the relevant literature in order to intensify my apprehension of the chosen research subject. I will besides measure different research techniques and select the most suited methodological analysis for my research. The first month will stop with finishing a research proposal and a written literature reappraisal.

In the 2nd and 3rd month, I will analyze the populace and the cardinal people sentiments on the casino gaming by carry oning a study and interviews. I will reexamine the questionnaire and interviews inquiries to guarantee all the inquiries are relevant to the aim of my survey. If the study response rate was non good, I will direct out more invitations to guarantee I reach my mark figure. All primary and secondary informations will be collected within these two months.

The forth month will be dedicated for information analysis. Once all informations are collected, I will form and construe these natural information. I will pass the last two months to compose my thesis. The first bill of exchange of my thesis will be finished in the 5th month. In the last month, I will make a concluding cheque and alteration for my thesis. The concluding thesis will be completed at the clip of entry.