Linguistics Plus Essay

A. The Backround Of Study In the preceding chapters. linguistics has been discussed chiefly as the scientific survey of linguistic communications. Harmonizing to this position. lingual is a theoritical. abstract. academic topic. It describes the nature of human linguistic communication activity in scientific footings and linguistics are see to belong to different schools of idea and to keep viing lingual theories. We have seen what this position of linguistics has to lend to linguistic communication instruction. There is another position of linguistics which cuts across all schools of lingual idea and is common land among all linguistics.

In this position. linguistics is abody of attitudes and cognition which consequence from the survey of things like nature of linguistic communication as a communicative. societal activity: linguistic communication in the person. his address mechanism and mental capacities for linguistic communication: linguistic communication in society: assortments of linguistic communication. the strict description of peculiar linguistic communications. etc. This common land the linguistics is instantly relevant to whole field of linguistic communication instruction. B. The Formulation Of Study Based on the backrgound of survey that explained. we formulate some jobs that will be explained in this treatment. there are:

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1. What is the significance of psycholinguistics? 2. What is linguistic communication acquisition? 3. is the first linguistic communication larning the same as first linguistic communication acuisition? 4. What is the intervention from L1 in larning L2? C. The Perpose Of Writing To obtain a focussed. it is necessary to state the intent of this paper. The intents of composing this paper are: 1. Make the readers know about Psycholinguistic. linguistic communication acquisition. First and 2nd linguistic communication. Motivation in L2 acquisition. and Language Interference. 2. Knowing the different between First and Secong Language D. Research Of Methodology.

There are many methods that can be used in educational research. such as historical method. descriptive method. experimental method etc. We use the description method in order to run into the intent of the research. Chapter 2 LINGUISTIC PLUS ( CHAPTER 6 IN BOOK ) A. PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PSIKOLINGUISTIK As its name suggests. psycholinguistics is a field survey that combines psychological science and linguistics. The term itself was coined in 1951. Though the survey had been traveling on eveb in the 19th century in the signifier of the survey of linguistic communication development. It includes a great assortment of subjects that are of involvement to linguistic communication instructors.

Some of these are: how linguistic communication is received and produced by linguistic communication user: our memory span of linguistic communication: motive in linguistic communication acquisition: how L1 Habits interface with L2 larning billingualism and mental development: the usage of linguistic communication in concept formation ; and linguistic communication acquistion or development. Seperti namanya. psikolinguistik adalah studi lapangan yang menggabungkan psikologi dan linguistik. Istilah itu sendiri diciptakan pada tahun 1951. Meskipun penelitian telah terjadi bahkan pada abad kesembilan belas dalam bentuk studi perkembangan Indonesian.

Ini mencakup berbagai macam topik yang menarik bagi guru Indonesian. Beberapa di antaranya adalah: bagaimana Indonesian diterima dan dihasilkan oleh pengguna Indonesian: memori kita rentang Indonesian: motivasi dalam belajar Indonesian: bagaimana Kebiasaan L1 antarmuka dengan pembelajaran belajar L2 dan perkembangan mental: penggunaan Indonesian dalam pembentukan konsep. dan akuisisi Indonesian atau pembangunan. B. LANGUAGE ACQUISTION TRANSISI BAHASA The last mentioned subject is presently being much investigated by TG syntacticians because their lingual theory makes such on the linguistic communication bring forthing ability of human existences.

It is hence of involvement to them. as it is to instructors. to happen out how linguistic communication is acquired. ( it may be noted at this point that they make a differentiation between linguistic communication acquisition or development and linguistic communication acquisition. The first linguistic communication or female parent lingua is acquired. while the 2nd linguistic communication is learned. ) Topik terakhir yang disebutkan saat ini sedang diselidiki oleh banyak tatabahasawan tradisional grammar karena teori linguistik mereka membuatnya seperti Indonesian dapat menghasilkan kemampuan manusia.

Oleh karena itu sangat menarik bagi mereka. terutama untuk guru. untuk mengetahui bagaimana Indonesian diperoleh. ( Mungkin terdapat pada bahasan ini bahwa mereka membuat perbedaan antara penguasaan Indonesian atau pengembangan dan pembelajaran Indonesian asli atau Indonesian ibu yang langsung diperoleh. sedangkan Indonesian asing harus dipelajari. ) There are two theories of linguistic communication acquisition: the cognitive-code acquisition theory f-voured by the transformational productive linguists and the habit-formation theory of the structural linguists.

The habit-formation theory is in consequence the aplication of larning theory to linguistic communication acquisition. It involves conditioning and support to determine a response until it is like the theoretical account. An illustration mat make the procedure clear. An baby may by chance bring forth what sound like “mama” . on his babble and the female parent reinforces this by smiling. snoging. snuggling him. . This encourages him to bring forth the sounds once more and the nearer they approach the word “mama” . the more pleasance the female parent shows until the kid learns to state the word right every clip with mention to her.

The whole procedure is described as “ shaping” the response and beef uping it by selective support. The response is encouraged to repeat or strengthened by the smiling or nod. or whatever is reenforcing to the kid. Perennial occurences of the response from wont. Imitation plays every bit of import a function as repeat in the theory. The kid imitates the grownups he hears and is once more reinforced for right responses. This theory of linguistic communication acquisition is based on the position that linguistic communication is behaviour that consequences from wonts and wonts are formed by pattern and repetion.

Ada dua teori akuisisi Indonesian: teori belajar kode kognitif mempelajari teori f-voured oleh ahli Indonesian transformasi generatif linguistik dan teori-kebiasaan hasil pembentukan ahli bahasa struktural. Teori formasi kebiasaan yang pada kenyataannya aplikasi Dari teori belajar akuisisi Indonesian. Ini melibatkan pengkondisian dan penguatan untuk membentuk respon sampai seperti theoretical account atau contoh yang adenosine deaminase. misalnya sebuah kaset untuk membuatnya sebagai contoh. Contoh lain adalah Bayi yang dapat menghasilkan sebuah kata yang terdengar seperti “mama” . saat mengoceh dan ibunya memperkuat ini dengan memberikan senyuman. mencium. atau memeluk Defense Intelligence Agency.

Hal ini dapat mendorong Defense Intelligence Agency untuk menghasilkan suara lagi dan semakin dekat dengan kata “mama” yang sebenarnya. respon senang yang ditunjukan ibunya itu terus ditunjukan hinngga anak belajar mengucapkan kata kata dengan. Seluruh proses yang digambarkan sebagai “pembentuk” respon dan penguatan dengan penguatan selektif. Respon yang didorong untuk muncul kembali atau diperkuat oleh senyum atau anggukan. atau apapun yang dapat memperkuat kepada anak untuk melakukan sesuatu. Kejadian yang diulang dari respon dan Dari kebiasaan.

Permainan meniru sama penting peranannya sebagai teori. Anak meniru Pongo pygmaeus dewasa. Iowa mendengar lagi dan diperkuat oleh respon yang diberikan Pongo pygmaeus disekitarnya. Teori pemerolehan Indonesian didasarkan pada pandangan bahwa Indonesian adalah perilaku yang dihasilkan Dari kebiasaan dan kebiasaan yang dibentuk oleh praktek dan pengulangan. The cognitive-code acquisition theory provinces that linguistic communication is lawful behavior and that in linguistic communication acquisition. the baby learns the set of regulations that will bring forth the sentences of the linguistic communication. How does he get at the set of regulations?

TG syntacticians say human existences are born with a linguistic communication acquisition device ( LAD ) . which enables the kid to organize a series of hypotheses about the linguistic communication which he hears. as he grows up. At each phase in his linguistic communication development he tests his hypothesis ( the set of regulations he has formulated so far ) against what he hears ( the linguistic communication informations ) and revises it consequently. until he reaches big competency. But what does the LAD consist of? The theory is that it consists of those lingual universals to be found the deep. deep construction of all linguistic communications.

There is no understanding or certainty yet about what these universals are apart from the fact that they must be certain abstract syntactic and semantic classs and relationships. though there may be a neurophysiological footing in the encephalon. Examples of such relationships which have been postulated are: those between noun and verb as in instance grammar ; that between capable and predicate ; and catagories like NP. VP. Adv.

These universals are said to be present in the construction of all linguistic communications but each linguistic communication realises them in different manner in surface construction and linguistic communication acquisition consists in larning how it is done in that peculiar linguistic communication.

The linguists are doing cross-cultural surveies of linguistic communication acquisition in order to acquire grounds of lingual universals. but the informations collected so far are still unelaborated though certain characteristics in linguistic communication appear in about the same sequence and at about the same age all over the universe. Teori Kode kognitif belajar menyatakan bahwa Indonesian adalah aturan aturan perilaku dan bahwa dalam akuisisi Indonesian. bayi mempelajari seperangkat aturan yang akan menghasilkan kalimat Indonesian. Bagaimana ia bisa sampai pada seperangkat aturan?

Tatabahasawan TG mengatakan manusia dilahirkan dengan perangkat penguasaan Indonesian ( LAD ) . yang memungkinkan anak untuk membentuk serangkaian hipotesis tentang Indonesian yang Iowa dengar. saat ia tumbuh. Pada setiap tahap dalam perkembangan Indonesian. ia menguji hipotesis tersebut ( seperangkat aturan yang telah dirumuskan sejauh ini ) terhadap apa yang Iowa dengar ( informations Indonesian ) dan merevisi ( menerjemahkan artinya ) . sampai ia mencapai kompetensi dewasa. Tapi apa saja penyusun LAD itu?

Tidak ada kesepakatan atau kepastian tentang apa saja penyusun LAD tersebut dan tak adenosine deaminase yang terlepas Dari kenyataan bahwa Pongo pygmaeus orang cosmopolitan linguistik harus memastikan kategori sintaksis dan semantik abstrak. meskipun mungkin adenosine deaminase dasar neurofisiologi di otak. Contoh hubungan tersebut yang telah disebutkan adalah antara nomina dan verba seperti dalam tata Indonesian. bahwa antara subjek dan predikat. dan kategori seperti NP. VP. Adv. Itu dikatakan terdapat dalam struktur Dari semua Indonesian. tetapi setiap Indonesian menempatkan mereka dengan cara yang berbeda dalam struktur permukaan dan pembelajaran tertentu.

Para ahli Indonesian membuat studi lintas-budaya. untuk mendapatkan bukti yang umum tentang linguistik. tetapi informations yang dikumpulkan sejauh ini masih samar meskipun fitur tertentu dalam Indonesian muncul di sekitar urutan yang sama dan pada sekitar usia yang sama di seluruh dunia. The instructor of 2nd linguistic communication needs to take of these two theories of linguistic communication acquisition since they have given rise to schools of idea on linguistic communication instruction. If linguistic communication acquisition is a affair of wont formation. so the linguistic communication instructor must concentrate on public presentation.

Let the students imitate a theoretical account and give them plentifulness of form drill to set up wonts of behavior. Reinforce them gor right responses and elimitate incorrect responses by a deficiency of support. Let them larn inductively. deducing the regulations for themselves after much pattern instead than having the regulations for accounts at the begining. If. on the other manus. linguistic communication acquisition is a affair of larning a codification. so the linguistic communication instructor must guarantee that the students internalise the regulations yhat will enable them to bring forth sentences.

Explanations of the sentences constructions and expressed cognition of the regulations must so play a larger regulation in linguistic communication instruction. Para guru Indonesian kedua perlu mengambil Dari kedua teori pemerolehan Indonesian karena mereka telah melahirkan aliran pemikiran pengajaran Indonesian. Jika akuisisi Indonesian adalah masalah pembentukan kebiasaan. maka guru Indonesian harus berkonsentrasi pada kinerja. Biarkan siswa meniru theoretical account dan memberi mereka banyak bor pola untuk membangun kebiasaan perilaku. Memperkuat mereka tanggapan gor benar dan elimitate tanggapan yang salat oleh kurangnya penguatan.

Biarkan mereka belajar induktif. menyimpulkan aturan untuk diri mereka sendiri setelah banyak latihan daripada menerima aturan untuk penjelasan di awal. Jika. di sisi lain. penguasaan Indonesian adalah masalah belajar kode. maka guru Indonesian harus memastikan bahwa siswa menginternalisasi yhat aturan akan memungkinkan mereka untuk menghasilkan kalimat. Penjelasan dari struktur kalimat dan pengetahuan eksplisit aturan kemudian harus memainkan aturan yang lebih besar dalam pengajaranbahasa. How is the linguistic communication instructor to make up one’s mind between the two theories of linguistic communication acquisition? What grammatical theory is most utile to linguistic communication instructors?

To reply these inquiries. I would merely wish to mention the reader to the paper by J. B Carroll that I cited in chapter 1. In that paper he says. “it would be pretentious to seek to show an sentiment on which of the assorted grammatical theories is most vailed. Different grammatical theories have somewhat different goals… in general. I believe that linguistic communication instructor should measure grammatical theories in footings of the grade to which they comform to the lingual wonts that really enable a linguistic communication user to talk and understand the language” . Bagaimana guru Indonesian untuk memutuskan antara dua teori pembelajaran Indonesian?

Apa teori tata Indonesian yang blanching berguna untuk guru Indonesian? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini. saya hanya ingin merujuk pembaca untuk kertas oleh JB Carroll yang saya dikutip dalam bab 1. Dalam kertas yang katanya. “Itu akan sok mencoba untuk mengekspresikan pendapat yang Dari teori gramatikal berbagai blanching vailed. Teori tata Indonesian yang berbeda memiliki tujuan yang agak berbeda … secara umum. Saya percaya bahwa guru Indonesian harus mengevaluasi teori tata Indonesian dalam hal sejauh mana mereka comform ke kebiasaan linguistik yang benar-benar memungkinkan pengguna Indonesian untuk berbicara dan mengerti Indonesian “ .

As for theories of linguistic communication acquisition. Carroll suggest a synthesis of the two. I am inclined to hold with him that neither a pure “audiolingual wont theory” nor a pure “cognitive-code larning theory” can be comprehensive and right. Each of the theories contains elements of truth. and each therefore to some grade incorrect or uncomplete. We need to pull out what is valuable for each theory and set them together. Carroll calls the synthesis “cognitive habit-formation theory” . Adapun teori belajar Indonesian. Carroll menyarankan sintesis Dari dua.

Saya cenderung setuju dengan Defense Intelligence Agency bahwa baik murni “kebiasaan teori audiolingual” atau murni “kognitif-kode teori belajar” bisa tidak lengkap dan benar. Setiap teori mengandung unsur kebenaran. dan masing-masing karena itu untuk beberapa derajat yang salat atau tidak lengkap. Kita perlu untuk mengambil apa yang berharga bagi teori masing-masing dan menempatkan mereka bersama-sama. Carroll menyebut sintesis “kognitif kebiasaan-formasi teori” . The audiolingual wont theory is right in that linguistic communication behavior is partially a affair wonts.

The audiolingual method with its accent on pattern pattern and formations of wonts fell out of favor because the theory made the incorrect assumtions about that sorts of wonts to organize and how to organize them. Alternatively of organizing wonts that have to make. For case. with replacing words in sentences or with altering one sort of sentences into another. instructor sould form functional wonts.

The diffferent between the two is that the former takes no history of linguistic communication ude in existent state of affairss ( where is the juncture for permutation for tabular arraies in existent life outside the schoolroom? ) while the latter does. For illustration. in learning bids and petitions. it is non plenty to show the scholars with statements to be changed into bids or petitions.

The stimulation is the sentence in the instance. In organizing fumctional wonts the stimulation is the state of affairss. the purposes and the hearer. In state of affairs A. if you need assist you merely shout “help! ” ; in state of affairs B. you may state. “please aid me” or “could you helm me? ” ; in state of affairs C. you may state. “would you mind assisting me? ” and so on. Teori Kebiasaan audiolingual benar dalam perilaku Indonesian adalah kebiasaan sebagian materi.

Metode audiolingual dengan penekanan pada praktek pola dan formasi Dari kebiasaan jatuh Dari nikmat karena teori membuat assumtions salah tentang hal itu jenis kebiasaan untuk membentuk dan bagaimana membentuk mereka. Alih-alih membentuk kebiasaan yang harus dilakukan. Misalnya. dengan mengganti kata-kata dalam kalimat atau dengan mengubah satu jenis kalimat menjadi lain. Guru arwah membentuk kebiasaan fungsional.

The diffferent antara keduanya adalah bahwa mantan tidak memperhitungkan Indonesian ude dalam situasi yang sebenarnya ( di mana merupakan kesempatan untuk substitusi untuk tabel dalam kehidupan nyata di luar kelas? )

Sedangkan yang kedua tidak. Sebagai contoh. dalam mengajar perintah dan permintaan. itu tidak cukup untuk menyajikan peserta didik dengan pernyataan yang akan diubah menjadi perintah atau permintaan. Stimulus adalah kalimat dalam kasus ini. Dalam membentuk kebiasaan fumctional stimulation adalah situasi. maksud dan pendengar. Dalam situasi A. jika Anda memerlukan bantuan Anda hanya berteriak “membantu! “ . Dalam situasi B. Anda mungkin berkata. “tolong Bantu saya” atau “bisa Anda helm saya? “ . Dalam situasi C. Anda mungkin berkata. “bisakah kau membantu saya “dan sebagainya? .

Carroll besides points out that the audingual wont theory wrongly assumed that pattern and repetion were important factors in the formation of wonts. Although pattern and repeat have certain functions to play. they are non important in larning. Succesive repeat of the same response is. in fact. by and large the incorrect manner to “stamp in” a wont ; there are few sorts of larning where this is effectual. Evocation of the response on a figure of nonperiodic. widely-spaced occasions. with insertion of different stuff in the intervals. is a much more effectual method has been insufficiently employed in form drills.

Carroll juga menunjukkan bahwa teori kebiasaan audingual salat diasumsikan bahwa praktek dan pengulangan adalah faktor penting dalam pembentukan kebiasaan. Meskipun praktek dan pengulangan memiliki peran tertentu untuk bermain. mereka tidak penting dalam belajar. Pengulangan berturut dari respon yang sama. pada kenyataannya. umumnya cara yang salat untuk “cap di” kebiasaan. ada beberapa jenis belajar di mana ini efektif. Kebangkitan Dari respon pada sejumlah aperiodik. luas-spasi kesempatan. dengan interpolasi Dari bahan yang berbeda dalam interval. adalah metode yang jauh lebih efektif telah kurang digunakan dalam latihan pola.

The component of truth in the cognitive-codelearning theory is that a cognition of the facts and formal regulations of the linguistic communication can truly be of aid in steering the scholar to organize the right linguistic communication wonts. However. cognition of the regulation entirely is of on help unless the scholar is given chances to organize the wonts in the manner suggested above. Forthermore. the facts of the linguistic communication should be presented in a signifier easy to understand. and appropriate to the learner’s age and ability. Abstract regulation should be illustrated with a figure of concrete illustrations.

Unsur kebenaran dalam teori kognitif-codelearning adalah bahwa pengetahuan tentang fakta-fakta dan aturan formal Indonesian benar-benar dapat membantu dalam membimbing peserta didik untuk membentuk kebiasaan Indonesian yang tepat. Namun. pengetahuan tentang aturan saja Dari pada berhasil kecuali pelajar diberikan kesempatan untuk membentuk kebiasaan dalam cara yang disarankan di atas. Forthermore. fakta Indonesian harus disajikan dalam bentuk yang mudah dimengerti. dan sesuai dengan usia peserta didik dan kemampuan. Aturan abstrak harus diilustrasikan dengan sejumlah contoh konkret.

C. FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA PERTAMA DAN KEDUA A inquiry frequently discussed with respect to 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is whether it is the same as first linguistic communication acquisition. The reply depends on the phase at which the 2nd linguistic communication is learned. If it is learned at an early age before the first linguistic communication is exhaustively mastered. or about at the same time with the first linguistic communication so 2nd linguistic communication acquisition analogues first linguistic communication acquisition. If it is learned at a ulterior phase in the formal school puting. there are several discernible differences.

First of all. the kid is exposed to the first linguistic communication all his waking hours while he likely hears the 2nd linguistic communication merely during the category hr. Second. there is a large difference in motive. A kid larning his first linguistic communication is strongly motivated because his demands and wants are satisfied by the usage of linguistic communication and his control of his environment and himself increases with his increasing command of his female parent lingua. Not merely this. but emotional and societal ties are created by his usage of the first linguistic communication. The 2nd linguistic communication rarely fulfils such map when it is learned as a topic in the course of study.

Third. as the kid learns the first linguistic communication he is besides larning the constructs. while in larning the 2nd linguistic communication he rarely has to organize new constructs except where these are foreign to his ain civilization. Finally. the wonts established in first linguistic communication larning tend to populate and interfere with his acquisition of the 2nd linguistic communication. It is besides claimed that there is a critical period for linguistic communication acquisition which extends up to puberty. But harmonizing to Carroll: “the grounds for a ‘critical period’ and diminution in linguistic communication acquisition ability during the in-between school old ages is non strong. nevertheless. and even if there is some diminution.

I am non persuaded that one must appeal to biology to explicate it. ” ( p. 109 ) Krashen has since confirmed Carroll’s position. Suatu pertanyaan yang sering dibahas terkait dengan pembelajaran bahasa kedua adalah apakah pembelajarannya sama dengan akuisisi Indonesian pertama. Jawabannya tergantung pada tahap di mana Indonesian kedua dipelajari. Jika dipelajari pada usia dini sebelum bahasa pertama benar-benar terkuasai. atau hampir bersamaan dengan bahasa pertama. maka pembelajaran Indonesian kedua sejajar dengan pembelajar Indonesian pertama. Jika dipelajari pada tahap berikutnya dalam bentuk sekolah formal. ada beberapa perbedaan yang diamati.

Pertama-tama. anak terkena Indonesian pertama selama Defense Intelligence Agency terjaga sementara Defense Intelligence Agency mungkin mendengar Indonesian kedua hanya selama jam sekolah. Kedua. adenosine deaminase perbedaan besar dalam motivasi. Seorang anak belajar Indonesian pertamanya sangat termotivasi karena kebutuhan dan keinginannya terpuaskan dengan manfaat Indonesian dan kendali lingkungannya dan dirinya sendiri meningkat dengan meningkatnya penguasaan “bahasa ibunya” . Tidak hanya itu. tapi hubungan emosional dan sosial terciptaka oleh penggunaanya terhadap Indonesian pertama. Bahasa kedua jarang memenuhi fungsi tersebut bila dipelajari sebagai subjek dalam kurikulum.

Ketiga. ketika anak belajar Indonesian pertama Defense Intelligence Agency juga belajar konsep. sedangkan dalam mempelajari Indonesian kedua jarang Iowa harus membentuk konsep-konsep baru kecuali konsep-konsep itu asing bagi budayanya sendiri. Akhirnya. kebiasaan-kebiasaan pada pembelajaran Indonesian pertama cenderung menghuni dan mengganggu pembelajaran Indonesian kedua. Hal ini juga menyatakan bahwa adenosine deaminase periode Crete bagi penguasaan Indonesian yang meluas sampai Masa puber. Tetapi menurut Carroll: “bukti untuk ‘periode kritis’ dan penurunan kemampuan akuisisi Indonesian selama pertengahan Masa sekolah tidak kuat. bagaimanapun. dan bahkan jika adenosine deaminase beberapa penurunan.

Saya tidak yakin bahwa seseorang harus menarik biologi untuk menjelaskannya “ ( hal. 109 ) . Krashen sejak mengkonfirmasi pandangan Carroll. There is one regard in which larning a first linguistic communication is similar to larning a 2nd linguistic communication: it is in the procedure itself. Merely as the immature kid makes generalizations and says “foots” or “goed” . so the Malay scholar of English as a 2nd linguistic communication may over-generalise and state “foot of the sky” when he means the skyline. In 2nd linguistic communication acquisition there is besides imitation and modeling. merely as there is in first linguistic communication acquisition.

Ada suatu kecocokan dimana pembelajaran Indonesian pertama mirip dengan belajar Indonesian kedua: yaitu dalam proses itu sendiri. Sama seperti anak muda yang membuat generalisasi dan mengatakan “foots” atau “goed” . begitu pula pelajar Melayu yang belajar Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa kedua mungkin over-generalisasi dan mengatakan “foots of the sky” ketika Iowa bermaksud mengatakan “the horizon” . Dalam pembelajaran bahasa kedua adenosine deaminase juga imitasi dan mold. seperti yang ada dalam pembelajaran Indonesian pertama. D. MOTIVATION IN L2 LEARNING MOTIVASI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN L2

It was mentioned above that there was a difference in motive between first and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. It is the deficiency of motive that produces little or no difference in pupil public presentation in response to improved learning methods or stuffs. This job of motive in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition has been studied and two sorts of motive have been distinguished. One is called instrumental motive: this is when the pupil learns the 2nd linguistic communication for instrumental intents. For illustration. it may be a mandatory school topic or it may be required for station –graduate work. for his calling or for travel abroad.

There is no desire on his portion to travel beyond the linguistic communication as a tool to carry through instead limited intents. The other sort of motive is called integrative. In this instance. the pupil learns the 2nd linguistic communication with the desire to place himself with the native talkers and to enrich his life by contact with another civilization. It was found that pupils with integrative motive have greater success at larning the 2nd linguistic communication than those with simply instrumental motive. Telah disebutkan di atas bahwa ada suatu perbedaan dalam motivasi antara belajar Indonesian pertama dan kedua.

Ini adalah kekurangan dari motivasi bahwa motivasi menghasilkan sedikit atau tidak adanya perbedaan terhadap prestasi siswa dalam menanggapi metode pengajaran atau materi. Masalah motivasi dalam belajar Indonesian kedua ini telah dipelajari dan dua jenis motivasi telah dibedakan. Satu disebut motivasi instrumental: yaitu ketika siswa belajar Indonesian kedua untuk tujuan instrumental. Sebagai contoh. mungkin suatu subjek sekolah yang wajib atau mungkin diperlukan untuk tugas pasca sarjana. untuk karirnya atau untuk perjalanan ke luar negeri. Tidak adan keinginan pada bagiannya yang melampaui Indonesian sebagai alat untuk memenuhi tujuan yang terbatas.

Jenis lain Dari motivasi disebut integratif. Dalam hal ini. siswa belajar Indonesian kedua dengan keinginan untuk mengidentifikasi dirinya dengan penutur asli dan memperkaya hidupnya dengan kontak dengan budaya lain. Ditemukan bahwa siswa dengan motivasi integratif memiliki keberhasilan yang lebih besar dalam mempelajari Indonesian kedua dibandingkan dengan motivasi instrumental. E. LANGUAGE INTERFERENCE GANGGUAN BAHASA Another facet of psycholinguistics that is straight relevant to 2nd linguistic communication instructor has been touched upon in discoursing incompatible analysis. That is. the survey of intervention from L1 in larning L2.

The theory is that in larning L1 certain wonts of perceiving and executing hold to be established and the old wonts tend to interlude and interfere with the acquisition. so that the pupil may talk L2 with the modulation of his L1 or the word order of his L1. and so on. We noted in the last chapter that though such intervention does happen. non all mistakes in L2 acquisition can be accounted for by intervention from L1. L2 larning like L1 acquisition appears to continue by phases when new spots of the linguistic communication are amiss learned. giving rise to what has been called lingua franca.

Aspek lain Dari psikolinguistik yang secara langsung relevan dengan guru Indonesian kedua telah disinggung dalam pembahasan analisis kontrastif. yaitu. the survey of intervention from L1 in larning L2. Teorinya adalah bahwa dalam belajar L1 kebiasaan dalam mengamati dan executing harus dibentuk dan kebiasaan lama cenderung selingan dan mengganggu pembelajaran. sehingga siswa berbicara L2 dengan intonasi L1-nya atau urutan kata L1-nya. dan seterusnya. Kami mencatat dalam bab terakhir bahwa meskipun gangguan tersebut tidak terjadi. tidak semua kesalahan dalam pembelajaran L2 dapat dipertanggungjawabkan oleh gangguan Dari L1.

pembelajaran L2 seperti akuisisi L1 muncul untuk melanjutkan secara bertahap ketika spot baru Dari Indonesian tidak dipelajari secara sempurna. sehingga menimbulkan apa yang disebut lingua franca. Chapter III CONGCLUTION From chapter 2 in this study. we make some point: 1. Psycholinguistics is a field survey that combines psychological science and linguistics. The term itself was coined in 1951. Though the survey had been traveling on eveb in the 19th century in the signifier of the survey of linguistic communication development.

It includes a great assortment of subjects that are of involvement to linguistic communication instructors. 2. theory of linguistic communication acquisition is based on the position that linguistic communication is behaviour that consequences from wonts and wonts are formed by pattern and repetion. 3. If the second is learned at an early age before the first linguistic communication is exhaustively mastered. or about at the same time with the first linguistic communication so 2nd linguistic communication acquisition analogues first linguistic communication acquisition. If it is learned at a ulterior phase in the formal school puting. there are several discernible differences.

– different motive. – Emotional and societal ties are created by his usage of the first linguistic communication. Meanwhile. The 2nd linguistic communication rarely fulfils such map when it is learned as a topic in the course of study. – When we Learn first linguistic communication. we besides learn the constructs. while in larning the 2nd linguistic communication we rarely has to organize new constructs except where these are foreign to his ain civilization. 4. The old wonts tend to interlude and interfere with the acquisition. so that the pupil may talk L2 with the modulation of his L1 or the word order of his L1. and so on.