The mastering of a foreign linguistic communication opens the roads for the theodolite of citizens whether for work. concern. or touristry intents. every bit good as for cultural and informational exchanges of all sorts. In this visible radiation. the position of English as a planetary linguistic communication in political relations. economic sciences. instruction and the media. particularly the Internet. is widely acknowledged. Typically. ESP has functioned to assist linguistic communication scholars cope with the characteristics of linguistic communication or to develop the competencies needed to work in a subject. profession. or workplace. ( Helen. Basturkman. 2006:6 ) Learning. as a linguistic communication based activity. is basically and deeply dependent on vocabulary cognition. Learners must hold entree to the significances of words which is proficient. related to their capable affair. …knowing the proficient terms…is non a sufficient status for successful reading of specialised stuff. It was. in fact. the non-technical footings which created more of a job. ( Cohen et Al. 1988:162 ) For many people vocabulary. peculiarly specialist vocabulary ( or nomenclature ) . is a cardinal component of ESP.
Despite this. vocabulary surveies and. in peculiar. the instruction of vocabulary appear to hold been slightly neglected in ESP ( Laufer p-167. Swales p224 ) . Reading. for pupils of English for specific intents ( ESP ) . is likely the most of import accomplishment in footings of geting new cognition. It does. nevertheless. frequently pose larning jobs. particularly with regard to vocabulary. The psycholinguistic theoretical account of reading widely favoured in linguistics and cognitive psychological science in the sixtiess and 1970s considered that the chief concepts underlying reading are doing anticipations and infering significance from context ( californium. Goodman 1976:127 ) . However. during the 1980s. the synergistic attack to reading became dominant. in which it was proposed that successful comprehension is achieved by the synergistic usage of two reading schemes: the top-down attack ( i. e. doing usage of the readers’ old cognition. outlooks and experience in reading the text ) and the bottom-up attack ( i. e. understanding a text chiefly by analysing the words and sentences in the text itself: californium. Sanford & A ; Garrod 1981 ; Van Dijk & A ; Kintsch 1983 ; Carrell 1988.
Research in ESP reading ( e. gSelinker & A ; Trimble 1974 ; Cohen et al. 1988 ) provides empirical support for the synergistic model. happening morphonographemic word-processing accomplishments to be a major constituent of reading. It has besides. since the 1980s. been loosely agreed among research workers ( californium. Kennedy & A ; Bolitho 1984 ; Trimble 1985 ; Cohen et al. 1988 ) that for non-native ESP readers the most debatable component in groking scientific and proficient ( ST ) texts is a set of vocabulary points that has been diversely labeled proficient and semi-technical. Whatever the name given to the words in this group. if they appear to impede pupils of ESP in groking texts in their subject. it is worthwhile for linguistic communication instructors and ESP practicians to seek ways in which learners’ lexical repertories can be raised to at least the threshold degree of skilled readership in their chosen Fieldss.
It is known to most 2nd linguistic communication scholars that the acquisition of vocabulary is a cardinal and of import constituent in the class of their acquisition. A good command of vocabulary is indispensable for ESP/EFL scholars. particularly for those who learn for specific intent or anticipate to run at an advanced degree in English. ‘It is wise to direct vocabulary acquisition to more specialised countries when scholars have mastered the 2000-3000 words of general utility in English’ ( Nation. 2001:187 ) . I will place the types of vocabulary in ESP texts and their comparative importance. I will supply an overview of some cardinal issues associating to the instruction of ESP vocabulary.
Types of vocabulary
In learning and larning vocabulary. it’s indispensable to separate between different types of vocabulary because different types of vocabulary need different focal point and intervention or some types of vocabulary will be given precedences and accents in instruction and larning harmonizing to leaners’ different purposes of acquisition.
1. Core and non-core vocabulary
One manner of looking at the position of words in lexical Fieldss is to see whether some words are more nucleus. or cardinal to the linguistic communication. than others. The thought that there might be a nucleus or basic vocabulary of words at the bosom of any linguistic communication is rather an appealing one to linguistic communication pedagogues. for if we could insulate that vocabulary so we could fit scholars with a survival kit of nucleus words that they could utilize in virtually any state of affairs. whether spoken or written. formal or informal. or any state of affairs where an perfectly precise term. might be elusive and where a nucleus word would make. ( McCarthy. 1990:49 ) As the word ‘core’ suggests. nucleus vocabulary refers to those words that are more cardinal to the linguistic communication than other words and be given to be the most often happening 1s. ‘People prefer to utilize such words because they do hold core meaning-potential’ ( McCarthy. 1990 ) . They are thought to be more ‘core’ because it is easy to happen an opposite word. besides they are impersonal in formality and useable in a broad assortment of state of affairss. Furthermore. an of import point is that such words can be used to rephrase or give definitions of other words.
For illustration. ( McCarthy. 1990 ) the undermentioned direction is given: [ decide which is the nucleus word in the set of words: slim. slender. thin. emaciated and scraggy and we can easy calculate out that ‘thin’ is the nucleus word ] Core vocabulary: words of impersonal significance in any lexical set ; nucleus words collocate more readily with a broad scope of words. they may be used in a wider scope of registries. and are normally involved in the definition of non-core members of their set. In ESP instruction. we may come across subject-specific vocabulary. which is non-core every bit far as the linguistic communication as a whole is concerned. ‘This is because it is non impersonal in field and is associated with a specialised topic’ ( Carter. 1988:172 ) . They are subject-specific nucleus vocabulary ; pudding stone. sandstone. siltstone. limestone and dolomite. gypsum. phosphate. Fe. oxide. rough oil. hydrocarbons-compounds. H. sulpher. O and N. gaseous fuels. methane. synthetics. fossil fuels. pyrogenic stones. metamorphous stones.
In fact that the demand of ESP pupils is to larn such above mentioned nucleus vocabulary in written and spoken linguistic communication in their profession. ESP pupils with specific and academic intent may necessitate to get proficient and semi-technical words in their specializer texts which are in demand for them to larn and utilize it in address and composing paperss. Specialist vocabulary can be core in the occupation constitution where specializer use it often and in demand. every bit good as during the ESP classes where ESP instructor and student’ fruitful interaction and it is really cardinal for communicating. particularly. composing certifications where specialist uses core-specialist vocabulary every bit good as ESP pupil may larn that nucleus vocabulary in texts which are full of proficient and semi-technical vocabulary and which is cardinal to larning.
2. Spoken and written vocabulary
The spoken text is an illustration of what Ure ( 1971 ) calls ‘language-in-action’ . that is. people are utilizing linguistic communication as an concomitant to the action they are engaged in. and the feeling of elation or weightiness of vocabulary is what Ure calls ‘lexical density’ ( McCarthy:1990:71 ) The written text is less dependent on physical context and its words make specific mention to points in the state of affairs. Talking versus authorship is one of import dimension impacting lexical denseness. but some spoken manners ( e. g. unwritten narrative. or a formal talk ) might be lexically rather heavy. ( McCarthy. 1990:71 ) Although most of the bing literature on vocabulary has grown out of the survey of written texts. spoken texts seem less ‘dense’ than the most written texts in vocabulary points. which is characterized in language-in –action texts ; repeat and lexical dialogue occur much more frequently in spoken discourse than in written texts ; obscure and instead general words are more often used in mundane talk than in written texts.
Spoken vocabulary is what we got from written vocabulary to utilize orally. by contrast we can’t use full written information in address every bit good as possible. there are a batch of written information in the past and in the present. for utilizing important thoughts. at first. we should see which is more available and more demanding for occupation and for day-to-day life to utilize. ESP pupils who study the written texts. based on proficient and semi-technical vocabulary. accordingly. will merchandise talk vocabulary which is resulted from the information of written vocabulary. That’s why spoken and written vocabulary is indispensable in ESP classs.
3. Procedural vocabulary
Vocabulary used to explicate other words. to construction and form their significance. Procedural Vocabulary consists of words with a high indexical potency. which means that they can be interpreted in a broad scope of ways. Identifying points in the vocabulary that seem to transport a heavy work-load ( e. g. the nucleus vocabulary ) must include a consideration of how some words are characteristically used to speak about other words. to rephrase them and specify them and to form them in communicating. Widdowson ( 1983 ) describes this sort of vocabulary as ‘procedural’ . Robinson ( 1988 ) refers to ‘this simple lexis of paraphrasis and explanation’ to exemplify procedural vocabulary and calls the procedural words ‘the chief component in our reading and classification of specific frames of reference’ : Ver-mic-u-lite-type of Mica that is a really light stuff made up of threadlike parts. that can be used for maintaining heat inside edifices. turning seeds in. etc. ( McCarthy. 1990:51 ) We need sense ( dealingss between words ) and indication ( dealingss between words and the universe ) in concurrence.
However. scholars at all degrees will necessitate to face the procedural vocabulary of the linguistic communication they are larning ( McCarthy. 1990:52 ) Widdowson ( 1983:92 ) makes a differentiation between words which are schematically bound and words of high indexical ( or procedural –they are synonymous ) potency. The schematically bound words narrow the frames of mention and place peculiar Fieldss ; ‘hydrometer’ has low indexical potency and will happen in a narrow scope of texts identifiable within certain scientific and proficient Fieldss ( McCarthy. 1990:51 ) Procedural vocabulary is characteristically used to speak about. paraphrasis. define and form words in communicating. They are normally used in lexicons to give definitions.
Students of Petroleum technology may happen them utile when larning other words for the accretion of their vocabulary. It is true that pupils are required procedural vocabulary that helps them understand the proficient vocabulary used in the procedure of set uping word significance. The of import function of procedural vocabulary prevarications. hence. in the premise that significance is non inactive. but can be negotiated through interaction between participants therefore. demanding when? and why? Because of unknown proficient and semi-technical vocabulary. which is rather complicated to understand. and is the chief tool in the texts to grok their ain forte.
ESP instructors should give definitions by utilizing procedural vocabulary. which may give a specific description of the word. On the other manus. to utilize procedural vocabulary. ESP pupils need to cognize. about 2000 vocabulary words. After holding gained them. pupils are able to specify the proficient and semi-technical vocabularies which are really complicated to grok and to foretell. However. with the aid of procedural vocabulary usage. I believe that ESP instructors. after holding used the procedural vocabulary. could give the exact definition of the unknown word. Consequently. ESP pupils may think what it is in L1. That’s why the usage of procedural vocabulary is indispensable in ESP categories.
4. Technical and semi-technical vocabulary
Many ESP instructors have found that vocabulary can be one of the major jobs that consequence students’ apprehension of scientific and proficient texts. Harmonizing to Kennedy & A ; Bolitho ( 1984 ) . Trimble ( 1985 ) and Nation ( 1990 ) . the trouble lies non with proficient vocabulary as such but. as Cohen et Al. ( 1988: 153 ) put it: …even pupils with command over the proficient footings become so defeated in reading proficient English that they seek native-language sum-ups of the English texts. or native-language books covering approximately the same stuff. or do non read the stuff at all. but concentrate instead on taking direct talk notes. Clairvoyance pupils by and large find their troubles in reading Petroleum technology texts because of non cognizing proficient and semi-technical vocabulary in L2. and this does so look to be one of their major jobs in groking texts of their capable country. particularly during 2nd and 3rd old ages of survey.
Many of the jobs that the pupils encounter in utilizing English are related to comprehension. and are caused by their limited cognition of vocabulary. including crucially. a deficiency of consciousness of lexical ambiguity. Increasingly research workers have favoured the position that such an country of vocabulary creates important barriers to students’ apprehension of ( ST ) texts. but the treatment has been complicated by the usage of several different footings for what appears to be the same intermediate-level country of trouble. for which observers such as Cowan ( 1974 ) . Robinson ( 1980 ) . Trimble ( 1985 ) and Tong ( 1993a. 1993b ) use the term sub-technical vocabulary. while others use non-technical with or without ( californium. Barber 1962 ; Nation 1990 ; Tao 1994 ) . and still others use semi-technical ( St John & A ; Dudley-Evans 1980 ; Farrell 1990 ; McArthur 1996b ) . We can non learn our scientific and proficient pupils the whole of the scientific vocabulary: this is beyond the capacity of any person.
Nor do we usually want to learn them the specialised proficient footings of their ain subject… . what the English instructor can normally trust to make is to learn a vocabulary which is by and large utile to pupils of scientific discipline and technology-words that occur often in scientific and proficient literature of different types. Some of these words will be proficient 1s. but many will non. The existent justification for holding extremely specialised texts is to accomplish face cogency. Learners may be more motivated by them. because they make the linguistic communication seem more relevant. But scholars can be fickle. And if the usage of such texts makes work in the schoolroom hard. scholars will shortly lose their liking for such texts ( Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters. 1995:162 ) Coxed and Nation ( 2001 ) categorize vocabulary for learning and larning into four groups of words: high frequence words. academic vocabulary. proficient vocabulary. and low frequence vocabulary.
They argue: ‘when scholars have mastered control of the 2. 000 words of general utility in English. it is wise to direct vocabulary acquisition to more specialised countries depending on the purposes of the learners’ ( p. 252-253 ) . ( Helen. Basturkemn. 2006:17 ) . Harmonizing to Bloor and Bloor ( 1986 ) . learning a specific assortment of English ( ESP ) can get down at any degree including novices. Furthermore. larning from the specific assortment of English ( for illustration. English for physicians. English for cordial reception ) . is extremely effectual as scholars get constructions in relation to the scope of significances in which they are used in their academic. workplace. or professional environments ( Helen. Basturkmen. 2006:17 ) Sager ( p-98 ) writes: nomenclature is an applicable field of survey concerned with the creative activity. aggregation and ordination of the vocabulary of particular languages… . . this work is carried out by comparatively few people for the benefit of all users of particular linguistic communications. Sager notes the premise that specialised communicating can be made more effectual If footings are formed harmonizing to certain prevailing forms which have a prognostic value.
Alber-De Wolf ( p-167 ) suggests that a good cognition of term-formation procedures improves the reading accomplishments necessary for reading foreign LSP but most work in nomenclature is aimed non at instructors but at transcribers and. progressively. at machine interlingual rendition and the development of term Bankss ( Ross. Thomas ) . Sager makes the of import observation that nomenclature is non so fixed as might be supposed. ( Pauline Robinson. 1991:27 ) Voracek compares nomenclature across the natural scientific disciplines and societal scientific disciplines. He suggests that because political nomenclature can ne’er be emotionally impersonal. it can be barely accurate and unambiguous and it will ever do jobs for transcribers and translators. Economic footings. while emotionally impersonal. besides cause jobs of interlingual rendition across economic systems ( Pauline Robinson. 1991:27 ) . In fact. proficient footings which are used merely in a specialised field are sometimes less troublesome than vocabulary that looks familiar.
Students recognize the demand to happen significances for proficient footings. and most lexicons define them. On the other manus. pupils assume they already know the significance of an ordinary word. so they do non seek to happen a specialised significance for it ( Virginia French Allen. 1983:88 ) . Technical vocabulary is words or phrases that are used chiefly in a specific line of work or profession. Similarly. applied scientist of crude oil technology field needs to cognize proficient words such as organic decay. pudding stones. clay schist. siltstone. limestone. dolomite. gypsum. phosphate. Fe. oxide. rough oil. hydrocarbons-compounds. H. sulpher. O and N. gaseous fuels. methane. synthetics. fossil fuels. pyrogenic stones. metamorphous stones and may get proficient and semi-technical vocabulary in the Petroleum technology texts where they come across often. and words which most people outside of that industry ne’er usage.
In footings of linguistic communication content. there is small ground why. state. a Biology text should be more utile to a Biology than. state. a Physics text. There is no grammatical construction. map or discourse construction that can be identified specifically with Biology or any peculiar topic. Such things are merchandise of the communicative state of affairs ( talk. conversation. experiment. instructions ) and the degree ( applied scientist. technician. director. machinist. university ) there are merely two ways in which the topic has any sort of influence on the linguistic communication content We can separate four types of vocabulary:
-structural: are. this. merely. nevertheless ;
-general: tabular array. run. Canis familiaris. route. conditions. cause ;
-sub-technical: engine. spring. valve. acid. budged ;
-technical: auricula atrii. schist some. crevice. cataphoresis.
Technical vocabulary was used far less often than the non-technical. These proficient footings are besides likely to present the least jobs for scholars: they are frequently internationally used or can be worked out from cognition of the capable affair and common root. ( Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters. 1995:166 ) Comprehension in the ESP schoolroom is frequently more hard than in existent life. because texts are taken in isolation. In the outside universe a text would usually look in a context. which provides mention points to help apprehension ( Tom Hutchinson and Waters. 1995:16 ) In footings of learning in ESP. it is most of import to do a differentiation between the two types of vocabulary: proficient and semi-technical because they are of great importance for scholars to analyze English for specific intents and academic intents. Baker ( 1988 ) lists six classs of vocabulary. all of which relate to EAP.
They are: 1. Items which express impressions general to all specialized subjects ; 2. General linguistic communication points that have a specialised significance in one or more subjects ; 3. Specialized points that have different significances in different subjects ; 4. General linguistic communication points that have restricted significances in different subjects ; 5. General linguistic communication points that are used to depict or notice on proficient procedures or maps in penchant to other points with the same significance. for illustration occur instead than go on. 6. Items used to signal the writer’s purposes or rating of stuff presented ( Dudley-Evans and St John. 1998:83 ) . Dudley-Evans and St John ( 1998:83 ) suggest deciding the overlapping six classs ( Baker. 1988:91 ) into two wide countries: A ) Vocabulary that is used in general linguistic communication but has a higher frequence of happening in specific and proficient description and treatment.
B ) Vocabulary that has specialized and restricted significances in certain subjects and which may change in intending across subject. It is rather clear that the first country would be referred to as semi-technical and the 2nd country would be regarded as proficient vocabulary. We can analyze the following text to exemplify the difference among them below. Some infusions are taken from the texts of Petroleum technology field. to analyse which is proficient and semi-technical and what pupils of this country survey during the category and what sort of information a ESP instructor should supply within the category. These texts are cardinal in the bosom of acquisition and there is a demand. deficiency. desire of pupils to be competent with. In the 2nd and 3rd twelvemonth classs. pupils of the Petroleum technology field. in Karshi Engineering-Economics institute. the module of Oil and Gas. in Karshi. Uzbekistan. survey this forte in English during English categories.
How may we inform them about the specific cognition of their profession if we are non capable affair instructors? We are English linguistic communication instructors who did non analyze the forte of these pupils at all. Consequently. merely the occupation for us to make is to learn these texts. which are written in English and specially incorporate proficient and semi-technical vocabulary. 1. The thickness of the beds of sedimentary stones may change greatly from topographic point to topographic point. They can be formed by the mechanical action of H2O. air current. hoar and organic decay.
Such sedimentary as crushed rock. sand. and clay at the beginning and pudding stones. sandstones and clay schists subsequently are the consequence of the accretion of stuffs achieved by the destructive mechanical action of H2O and air current ( extract from the text ‘Sedimentary Rocks’ M. Ya. Barakova. 1977:74-75 ) 2. The most chief sorts of sedimentary stones are pudding stone. sandstone. siltstone. limestone and dolomite. Many other sorts with big practical value include common salt. gypsum. phosphate. Fe oxide and coal ( extract from the text ‘Sedimentary Rocks’ M. Ya. Barakova. 1977:74-75 )
3. Dodos are normally found in sedimentary stones. although. sometimes they may be found in pyrogenic and metamorphous stones every bit good. They are most abundant in mudstone. shale and limestone. but besides found in sandstone. dolomite and pudding stones ( infusion from the text ‘Fossil Fuels’ M. Ya. Barakova. 1977: 108-109 )
4. Liquid fuels are derived about from crude oil. In general. natural crude oil. or rough oil. as it is widely known. is the footing of practically all industrial fuels. Petroleum is a mixture of 100s of different hydrocarbons-compounds composed of H and C together with the little sum of other elements such as sulfur. O and N. Petroleum is associated with H2O and natural gas ( extract from the text ‘Fossil Fuels’ M. Ya. Barakova. 1977:108-109 )
5. Of gaseous fuels the most of import are those derived from natural gas. chiefly methane or crude oil. Using gaseous fuels makes it possible to obtain high thermic efficiency. easiness of distribution and control. Today. gas is widely utilized in the place and as a natural stuff for bring forthing synthetics. ( infusion from the text ‘Fossil Fuels ) ( infusion from the text ‘Fossil Fuels’ M. Ya. Barakova. 1977:108-109 )
The proficient vocabulary is rather obvious. The points are: organic decay. pudding stones. clay schist. siltstone. limestone. dolomite. gypsum. phosphate. Fe. oxide. rough oil. hydrocarbons-compounds. H. sulpher. O and N. gaseous fuels. methane. synthetics. fossil fuels. pyrogenic stones. metamorphous stones. and etc. The semi-technical vocabulary points are as follows: mechanical action. liquid fuels. crude oil. industrial fuels. natural gas. natural stuff. beds. abundant. accretion. destructive and chiefly. easiness of distribution and control etc. As every specializer has their ain specific vocabulary to utilize in address and authorship. the proficient and semi-technical vocabulary is besides the chief beginning for Petroleum technology pupils to travel through. In fact. to win in groking the written vocabulary and spoken linguistic communication in this country. ESP pupils should hold entree to these proficient texts where they can happen a manner to cognize about this forte in English.
Technical and semi-technical vocabulary is the chief instrument for endurance in this country of survey. As we can see from above. scholars who will make academic survey in English must concentrate on academic vocabulary which is diversely known as ‘general utile scientific vocabulary’ ( Barber. 1962 ) and semi-technical vocabulary ( Farrell. 1990 ) . because they need to exhibit a broad scope of academic accomplishments like reading about research documents in their ain Fieldss. listening to instructors talk about their work. composing academic documents and showing unwritten or written ratings of methods or consequences in many instances. or composing certifications of the industrial company where the scholar may utilize proficient words. which is really needed. and utilize it for communicating with foreign company by making export or import concern.
Technical and semi-technical vocabulary. which is used in this text. may non be occurred in the texts of other Fieldss of survey. for illustration. medical specialty. concern. but it can happen in other parts of technology countries. We may utilize general vocabulary in all Fieldss of survey where proficient and semi-technical vocabularies of crude oil technology field occur. With its importance shown above. proficient vocabulary or semi-technical vocabulary should be given precedence in learning by ESP instructors because. harmonizing to Dudley-Evans and St John ( 1998:83 ) . this type of vocabulary is used in general life contexts but has a higher frequence of happening in scientific and proficient descriptions and treatments. particularly in their specific field and conferences. meetings mentioning to forte.
ESP instructors should learn scholars general vocabulary every bit good as proficient vocabulary that has a higher frequence in a scientific field such as: -general: thickness. topographic point. air current. hoar. value. common. and etc. -petroleum technology: organic decay. pudding stones. siltstone. limestone. dolomite. gypsum. phosphate. Fe. oxide. rough oil. hydrocarbons-compounds. sulpher. O and N. gaseous fuels. methane. synthetics and etc. -verbs: vary. achieve. found. signifier. derive from. include. compose. tie in. obtain. use. bring forth. -collocations: destructive mechanical action. organic decay. accretion of stuffs. hydrocarbons-compounds. associate with.
The issue of learning proficient vocabulary
It is frequently claimed that it is non the occupation of the ESP instructors to learn proficient vocabulary ( Barber. 1964 ; Higgens. 1966 ; Cowan. 1974 ) . In general. we agree it is non but it may be the responsibility of ESP instructors to learn vocabulary in certain fortunes.
Beyond the responsibility of ESP instructor
In discoursing the instruction of ESP it has frequently been said ( Hutchinson and Waters. 1987 ; Higgins. 1966 ) that the learning proficient vocabulary is non the duty of the EAP instructor and that precedence should be given to the instruction of ‘semi-technical’ or ‘core vocabulary’ . The proficient vocabulary is instead more complicated than the simple impression that the ESP instructor should non touch it. While in general we agree that it should non be the duty of the ESP instructor to learn proficient vocabulary. in certain specific contexts it may be the responsibility of the ESP instructor to look into that scholars have understood proficient vocabulary looking as bearer content for an exercising. It may besides be necessary to guarantee that scholars have understood proficient linguistic communication presented by a capable specializer or assumed to be known by a capable specializer ( Dudley-Evans and St John. 1998:81 ) In any ESP exercising which exploits a peculiar context. that context will utilize certain proficient vocabulary.
It is of import that both the instructor and the scholars appreciate that this vocabulary is moving as bearer content for an exercising. and is non the existent content of the exercising. However. pupils normally need to be able to understand the proficient vocabulary in order to make exercising ( Dudley-Evans and St John. 1998:81 ) How do we cover with this proficient vocabulary? In some fortunes a term will be connate with the tantamount term in the students’ first linguistic communication and will non therefore cause trouble. If the term is non connate and is unfamiliar. so it may necessitate to be introduced and explained before the exercising is tackled. In many instances there is a one-to-one relationship between the footings in English and the learners’ L1 and so it will be plenty to interpret the term into the L1 after a brief account ( Dudley-Evans and St John. 1998:81 ) A proficient word is one that is recognizably specific to a peculiar subject. field or subject.
It is likely that they can merely be learned and understood by analyzing the field. Such words are considered to be the duty of the topic instructors. Strevens ( 1973:223 ) claims ‘that scholars who know the scientific field may hold small trouble with proficient words ; but a instructor who may non hold a great trade. We can analyze the illustrations in the given text. Technical words like organic decay. sedimentary. pyrogenic. metamorphous stones. limestone. clay schist. methane and others are specialised words in the field of crude oil technology. which may be rather easy for a pupil in L1. who surveies the crude oil technology. However. it is a different affair for ESP instructors. There are some other proficient words that are rather familiar to scholars even if scholars are non analyzing the specific subject to which the proficient words belong because the words are widely. even internationally. known.
Some really often happening words in computing machine scientific discipline. such as browser. plan. log. hypertext and cyberspace. are rather familiar to scholars and these proficient words have a high frequence happening in the texts of computing machine scientific disciplines and in information. The English instructor is an ideal source. who may inform the pupils of the crude oil technology field with the information of their profession in L2 for non-native talkers. Even if it is the beyond of his/her responsibility. the English instructor should surely explicate the proficient and semi-technical words in L1 or in L2 for successful acquisition. As a affair of fact that English instructor Teachs texts. which are full of proficient and semi-technical vocabulary. That’s why ESP instructor should cognize the capable affair in L1 and in L2. if non. non be able to learn the pupils of crude oil technology field because of non cognizing specializer cognition.
Furthermore. even he/she can’t interpret the text. As a consequence. no well-designed instruction will be done. A instructor of General English may non cognize the proficient and semi-technical words because she/he is non a specializer of this country. For illustration. the English instructor who teaches medical pupils should cognize the medical nomenclature. If she/he does non cognize the proficient vocabulary relating to medicate. how can she/he assist the interlingual rendition of significance of medical interventions or drugs which is being manufactured in Foreign state. most medicine production direction is written and explained. given information about medical drugs. and available devices in English. That’ why the function of Technical and semi-technical vocabulary is non merely valuable in the Petroleum technology field. but besides of import in other Fieldss of survey. The ESP instructor should corporate with capable affair instructor in order to cognize capable affair for successful instruction. Which vocabulary type should the ESP instructor Teach?
Harmonizing to Hutchinson and Waters. ( 1987 ) ESP should be seen as an attack to linguistic communication instruction. which is directed by specific and evident grounds for larning. The chief of their vocabulary acquisition is certainly academic vocabulary and they chiefly learn proficient and semi-technical vocabulary of their forte in texts. which are chief support for larning their specific field through unfamiliar words. The text is an source where has full of particular information for learners’ desire. and scholars try to foretell what the word is about with his/her specific background cognition and specify the word. Nowadays. a batch of Educational grant programmes demand English cognition every bit good as with specific subjects. where scholars study capable affair in English. That’s why scholar. who is willing to analyze in European or US. Foreign universities and desires to do a advancement in profession. accordingly. demands to larn proficient vocabulary. Learning proficient and semi-technical vocabulary is the most indispensable demand for such desire. and learning proficient and semi-technical vocabulary is more demanding.
Ease or hard in the learnability of vocabulary is non unconnected with the impression of frequence. since the most frequent words will likely be absorbed and learnt merely because they occur on a regular basis. But words may be easy or hard for a assortment of other grounds. and may necessitate particular attending or focal point in learning. 1. Wordss may show spelling troubles. Even native talkers of English have trouble retrieving whether individual or dual consonants appear in words like ‘occurrence’ . ‘parallel’ . and ‘beginning’ . Languages with more regular spelling forms present fewer troubles of this sort. 2. Wordss may show phonological troubles. either because they contain awkward bunchs of sounds ( English ‘thrive’ . ‘crisps’ ) . or because spelling interfaces with perceptual experience of what the sound is ( English ‘worry’ is on a regular basis pronounced by scholars as if it rhymed with ‘sorry’ ) . Such words may be efficaciously learned in all other respects. but pronunciation may stay a long-run trouble. particularly where old wonts are ingrained.
3. The syntactic belongingss of words frequently make them hard. In English. ‘want’ nowadayss fewer syntactic troubles than ‘wish’ . ‘want’ is followed by an infinitive and / or an object ; ‘wish’ may be followed by a assortment of verb forms in ‘that’ clauses. every bit good as by the infinitive. 4. Wordss may be perceived as really near in significance by the scholar. and hence hard to divide one from another. ‘Make’ and ‘do’ are ill-famed in this regard in English. Learners of Spanish frequently find it hard to divide ‘ser’ and ‘estar’ . which to the English-speaker seem both to intend ‘be’ . The trouble. or deficiency of trouble. a word presents may overrule its frequence and/or scope. and determinations to convey frontward or prorogue the instruction of an point may be based on learnability.
Published stuffs handle characteristics of learnability and trouble in different ways. p-86 ( McCarthy ) Difficulty and learnability cut right across the impressions of frequence and scope. We can non foretell that merely because a word is frequent it will be learnt rapidly and exhaustively or. conversely. that. because a word is infrequent. it will non be easy learnt. Technical and semi-technical vocabulary has besides troubles for pronunciation and for communicating to analyze.