The Heritage Trail Of The Muslim Mosque Tourism Essay

Widely acknowledge touristry is the act of travel for the intent of diversion and concern, and the proviso of services for this act and tourers are individuals who are going to and remaining in topographic points outside their usual environment at least twenty-hours in the visiting state for certain intents of leisure ( diversion, vacation, wellness, survey, faith and athletics ) , concern, household, mission, meeting and other intents ( Leiper,1979 ) . During the 2nd half of the 20th century, touristry has become one of the largest and most quickly turning sectors in the universe economic system ( Eadington & A ; Redman, 1991 ) . In twelvemonth 2010, it was recorded touristry industry ranked figure 4th in planetary export earner after crude oil, chemicals and automotive sector ( UNWTO, 2011 ) . In add-on, touristry industry besides contributes 5 per centum on planetary GDP and 7 per centum employment opportunities. As a effect, many states tend to advance touristry sector to pull more visitants to come. The touristry industry today is a major beginning of income coevals in many provinces and states. Tourism is understood to be one of the chief subscribers to the state and economic therefore it is found worthy to carry on a research relates to the touristry industry. Eadington and Redman ( 1991 ) mentioned touristry is an indutrsy signifier from assorted houses and orgnizations from many industries which serve clients with assortment of incomes, gustatory sensations and aims.

In Malaysia, it has been a enormous attending among the authorities, practicians and research workers sing the rapid growing of international touristry over the past three decennaries ( Mohamad, Abdullah & A ; Mokhlis,2012 ) .The attending was given because the touristry is understood to lending to economic system and of import in bring forthing activity and beginning of income, employment generating activity and beginning of income as mentioned earlier.

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It was supported by Habibi, Rahim, Ramchandran & A ; Chin ( 2009 ) that it is widely accepted that the touristry industry is identified as one of the major beginnings of economic. However, finish demands to vie to pull tourers to their tourisms finishs to bring forth income. Harmonizing to Mohamad et Al. ( 2012 ) the unstable addition in tourers ‘ reachings from 2004 to 2010 supports the claim that the touristry industry is really competitory. Therefore, in order to pull tourer, it is importance to place a finish to the right mark ( Echtner and Ritchie, 2003 ) and creates a differentiated finish image to last in a competitory planetary market place where assorted finishs compete intensely ( Baloglu and Mangaloglu 2001 ; Berlin and Martin 2004 ; Qu, Kim and Im, 2011 ) .

Based on the old research of measuring domestic tourers ‘ perceptual experience to touristry merchandises in Penang Island by Ranjanthran & A ; Mohammed ( 2010 ) it was suggested that the research should be done on international tourers to understand their perceptual experience as a uninterrupted attempt to better the merchandises and attracts tourist to see the topographic point.

The ground to run a research concentrating on international tourer because it is understand that the international tourers stay longer and pass more money during their visits compared to the domestic tourers. Harmonizing to Malaysia Tourism Satellite Account ( 2010 ) , international touristry outgo is the biggest subscriber to the touristry industry with 80.3 % in 2010 compared to the domestic touristry outgo.

Therefore, in order touristry concern could prolong their concern and leverage the attempt of pulling international tourers to Penang through this research. Harmonizing to Leisen ( 2001 ) , acknowledging the image of a finish will heighten the efficiency in advancing a finish therefore attracts tourers to see a tourer finish. Besides, understanding tourers ‘ features will supply chance for touristry concern to shift their mark market and placing untapped mark market as options.

Jayawardena ( 2002 ) pointed out that the hereafter of touristry markets is depend on the ability of touristry states to present “ a high quality merchandise that corresponds to the altering gustatory sensations, demands, wants and demands of the international travellers ” and mentioned that the usage of well-developed niche-based selling schemes can take to entire market growing.

Hence, inquiries arise as whether tourers perceived their trip experience as negatively or positively harmonizing to their experienced, gustatory sensation, wants and necessitate? Will tourists suggested the finish experienced to others? Which untapped market should be focus on to better touristry concern schemes? What is the singularity of Penang perceived by the international tourers to be focused on advancing it? Therefore, this paper will be set to indentify the finish image among the international tourer in guaranting the penchant of Penang as revisit finish for repeated tourer and tap new tourers by placing their travel features.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF PENANG

Penang is one of the top international tourer finishs in Malaysia known as “ Pearl of the Orient ” to many people, endorsed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site seting it as one of the celebrated islands in South-East Asia.

It is renowned for its civilization, nutrient and heritage, natural beauty beaches suited for those who seek for the tropical weathered holiday finish.

The capital of Penang, George Town was named after King George III of England. George Town was awarded metropolis position by the royal charter on January 1st 1957. Located in the bosom of the metropolis is one of South East Asia ‘s largest aggregations of Pre-war edifices. In order to continue the heritage of Penang, modern constructions are built environing these pre-war edifices. Some of these constructions are built more than 100 old ages ago. Tonss of attempt and money has been invested by the province authorities and private investors to continue the beauty of these constructions.

The heritage trail of the Muslim mosque, Chinese temple, Indian temple and Christian church will merely took 5 proceedingss of walking. The integrity of the people from different cultural group is best reflected by their regard for each other ‘s civilization, festival and tradition.

Besides its beauty and history, one should ne’er lose the delightful peddler nutrients that are offered around the clock during their stay. Penang offers you great nutrient from esteemed eating houses to peddlers ‘ carts by the route side.

The State of Penang or Negeri Pulau Pinang in Malaysia is made up of Penang Island and Province Wellesley which is on the peninsula. In the twelvemonth 1985, one of South East Asia ‘s longest span was build across the channel to link the island with the peninsula. The span has great impact on the citizens and the development of the island. The span eases the transit of natural stuffs and finished merchandises to and from the mills located in the industrial free trade zone of Penang ( Penang State Tourism Development & A ; Culture ) .

Despite the broad resources to be offered for touristry intents as mentioned above, Penang is now viing within the intense competitory touristry finish market. The little addition of the internationalt tourers finish is an evident of competive touristry market. The broad resources of advancing Penang without a right mark market would take to ill-defined image of Penang being portray in Penang for touristry.

In add-on, the little increased of the international reachings might besides caused by the planetary fiscal and economic crises. Hall ( 2010 ) mentioned that the fiscal and economic downturned in the twelvemonth of 2007 to 2010 hold affected the touristry industry and World Tourism Organization ( 2010 ) estimated that international tourer reachings decreased by 4 % in 2009, and many finishs in the universe were reported negative in the growing during these event. In fact, touristry concern in Penang faced troubles and affected by the crises because of the nature of the concern which dependable on tourers ( Ghaderi and Som, 2012 ) . In add-on, the touristry industries in Penang are confronting challenges in developing new selling schemes for concern such as publicity in selling their touristry service and merchandises.

1.3 STATISTIC OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS ARRIVAL TO PENANG

The tabular array below shows the decreased in the per centum of the international tourer reachings between 2005 and 2011.

Table 1.0

Number of International Tourist Arrivals, Penang 2005 – 2011

Year

International Tourists

Changes in Percentage ( % )

2005

2,084,377

7.0

2006

2,152,256

1.97

2007

2,399,351

12.88

2008

2,811,175

17.16

2009

2,977,642

5.92

2010

3,048,320

2.37

2011

3,063,564

0.50

( Beginning: Tourism Malaysia )

1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT

The Numberss of international tourers sing Penang for the past seven old ages are increasing from twelvemonth to twelvemonth. However, the alterations in per centum of international tourers are deteriorating and acquiring smaller from the twelvemonth of 2009 with 5.92 % , 2010 with 2.37 % and 2011 with 0.50 % . Percentage of international tourer reachings indicates the alterations in figure of international tourer reachings to Penang from twelvemonth to twelvemonth. It shows the increased of international reachings to Penang are acquiring smaller from twelvemonth to twelvemonth. The smaller increased from the twelvemonth of 2009 to 2011 may make dead point followed by impairment if no farther attempt taken.

In overcome the issues, attempt in pulling international tourers to come to Penang needed. Besides, that little figure of increased in international tourer to Penang is considered little for a well know tourer finish such as Penang. Attention on this issue should non be ignores to avoid serious issues in the coming year.Moreover, the upseting incidents in Penang reported by the media such as cleanliness, safety issues and bad services could portray a negative image of Penang and would likely impact the determination doing procedure in taking Penang as a preferred finish among the international tourers. In fact, the Chief Minister of Penang, Lim Guan Eng is promoting the industry participants to foreground on the singularity and unforgettable experience alternatively to retreat the negative image.

Other than that, president of Malaysia Association Hotels Penang, Mary Ann Haris mentioned the industries that have been reliable on Middle Eastern market are now confronting the lag in the inflow of Middle Eastern.

In add-on, the touristry industry participant should seek for untapped market as options. ( The Borneo Post, 2012 ) .

As effects, Penang may lost it entreaty of 3rd ranked most visited metropolis by international tourer and lost its attending to pull tourer if non running this research. The lessening figure of international tourers ‘ reachings to Penang will give a bad impact towards the touristry development of touristry in Malaysia. Besides, failure to place latest penchant, international tourers ‘ features and image may take to incorrect publicity scheme and non doing an impact on advancing Penang. Therefore, if this research will be helpful to happen out the latest penchant among the international tourers visited Penang and their purpose to revisit and purpose to urge Penang as a travel finish to others. The revealed of the research findings on international tourers perceived image penchants ; execution for the determination can be done in bettering the selling and promotional scheme in the touristry country. Failure in

1.5 PURPOSE OF STUDY

The intents of this research it to measure the sensed image of Penang as a tourer finish among the international tourers and see whether they perceived it positively or negatively. In add-on, it intends to analyze the influence of the sensed image towards their behavioral purpose whether to urge or to revisit Penang. Furthermore, the research will entree the features of the international tourers visited Penang. It will besides look into the relationship of among the variables in the theoretical frameworkSPELL OUT HE VARIABLE.

1.6 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

To look into the relationship between cognitive image, affectional image and behavioral purpose.

To place international tourers ‘ perceived image of Penang.

1.7 RESEARCH Question

What is the relationship between cognitive image, affectional image and behavioral purpose of Penang among international tourers?

What is the international tourers ‘ perceived image of Penang?

1.8 STUDY FRAMEWORK

Behavioral Purpose

Purpose to revisit

Purpose to urge

H1

Cognitive

Image

H2

Affectional

Image

Figure 1.0

Conceptual Framework Adapted From Abdullah and Kian ( 2010 )

1.9 HYPOTHESIS

H1: There is a positive relationship between cognitive image and behavioral purpose.

H2: There is a positive relationship between affectional image and behavioral purpose.

1.10 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research survey will hold an deduction to the finish sellers to place properties and factors that influence international tourer to visits. Besides, it will lend to the organic structure of cognition on how sensed image of Penang is studied

1.11 DEFINITION OF THE KEYWORDS

Table below are naming out the definition of keyword used in this survey.

Term

Definition

Writer

Image

Cognitive Image

Affectional Image

Perceived Image

Behavioral Purpose

1.12 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS

In this survey, the research worker has consistently divided the content into five chapters. The first chapter consist of background of survey, job statement, range of survey, aim of survey, research inquiries, important of survey, survey model and definition of term.

Meanwhile, chapter two which concentrate on literature reappraisal include relevant scholarly literature on Penang ‘s image as an international tourer finish.

Traveling frontward, chapter three will explicate on research methodological analysis used in this survey. It will get down with population, trying, research instrument, the process of informations aggregation, the sample size and the response rate.

Following is chapter four which will describe analyzed informations in this survey.

Finally, the 5th chapter summarized the survey by supplying necessary treatment base on the findings, deductions of the findings and besides recommendation for future research.

Chapter TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

surveies sing image in penang

surveies in HK and Spore usage buhalis

surveies in Malayis usage buhalis

image usage in attractive forces, states?

benefits of identyifng image and bi? ? factors of act uponing Bi.

benefits of Bi? convey more money? increasetourist?

In this chapter the research worker will sum up the literature reappraisal based on proposed survey. The sum-up of this proposed survey will reflect the conceptual model proposed.

This chapter is a reappraisal of the literature that applies to the propose survey. It explain the information spreads in the secondary informations and information found related to the propose survey. The literature divided into few sections which is destination image. All of the literature is based on old work.

2.1 BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION

In the early survey, the theory of program behaviour by Azjen ( 1991 ) was originally derived from the theory of ground action by Ajzen & A ; Fishbein ( 1980 ) . In theory of program behaviour ( TPB ) Azjen ( 1991 ) claims that behavioral purpose is a combination of three of import variables which is attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms and perceived behaviors control. Attitudes towards the behavior are mentioning to the grade to which a individual has a favorable or unfavorable rating or assessment of the behavior in inquiry. Meanwhile, subjective norm is mentioning to the perceived societal force per unit area to execute or non to execute the behavior and the eventually variables is sensed behavioral control is mentioning to the sensed easiness or trouble of executing the behavior and it is assumed to reflect past experience every bit good as awaited hindrances and obstructions. The three named variable are the ancestors of purpose.

Besides, this theory besides stated that the more favorable these three variable is, the stronger behavioral purpose an person have to execute the existent behavior and the other manner around if these three variable unfavorable. Figure 2.1 below are demoing the variable forming Theory of Planned Behaviour by Azjen ( 1991 ) .

In the services survey, Zeithmal, Berry and Parasuraman ( 1991 ) claim that there is a relationship between service quality and behavioral purpose which explained positive sensed service quality lead to favorable behavioral purpose and the other manner around, negative perceived service quality lead to unfavorable behavioral purpose.

The dimensions analysed in behavioral purpose are revisit purpose, word of oral cavity and willingness to pay premium among clients whom experience services and merchandises offered by a company.

ATTITUDE TOWARDS BEHAVIOUR

SUBJECTIVE Norm

PERCEIVED BEHAVIOUR CONTROL

BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION

ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR

Figure 2.1

Theory of Planned Behaviour ( Azjen, 1991 )

In the touristry field, Baker and Crompton ( 2000 ) explained the interceding consequence of satisfaction in between sensed quality and behavioral purpose. Subsequently, the survey found that sensed quality have a greater direct impact on behavioral purpose instead than traveling through satisfaction.

However, satisfaction can still be the go-between or the indirect ancestor towards behavioral purpose as it will explicate tourers ‘ emotional province sing the properties of services quality managed and offered by the touristry provider. World Trade Organization ( 1985 ) defined satisfaction as a psychological construct that involves a individual feeling of wellbeing and pleasance that consequences from obtaining what one hopes for and expects from an appealing merchandise and/or service. In that instance, several research workers have ran surveies by implementing satisfaction as the go-between between perceived quality and behavioral purpose or as a direct ancestors towards behavioral purpose in placing tourers degree of satisfaction and behavioral purpose towards the visited finish. Among of the research worker that ran this construct of survey in the travel related country are Gallarzaa and Saura ( 2006 ) on university pupils travel behavioral, Williams and Soutar ( 2009 ) on escapade touristry, Chen and Chen ( 2010 ) on heritage touristry, Zabkar, Brencic and Dmitrovic ( 2010 ) on Slovenia touristry development, and Lee, Jeon and Kim ( 2011 ) on Chinese tourers in the Republic of Korea.

Next, non merely perceived value was utilize as the ancestor of satisfaction and behavioral purpose but there are besides some other research applied motive ( Yoona and Uysal, 2005 ) , finish fond regard ( Yuksel, Yuksel and Bilim, 2010 ) , shopping hazard ( Yuksel and Yuksel, 2007 ) , past experience of trial ( Kozak, 2001 ) , image ( Chi and Qu, 2008 ) and freshness seeking ( Assaker, Vinzi and O’Connor, 2011 ) .

However there is really small research placing the direct influence of finish image towards behavioral purpose without implementing satisfaction as the go-between. Therefore, current survey chiefly aims in analyzing image as the ancestors of behavioral purpose without traveling through satisfaction.

The range of this survey will run by placing international tourer ‘s perceptual experience on Penang after their trial.

2.2 COMPONENT OF BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION

Following, earlier Zeithmal, Berry and Parasuraman ( 1991 ) pointed out the full three dimension assembled behavioral purpose are revisit purpose, viva-voce and willingness to pay premium. On the contrary, the touristry research normally use revisit purpose and word-of-mouth besides known every bit recommendations as the dimension in foretelling tourers ‘ behavioral purpose. For case, Chen and Tsai ( 2007 ) defined behavioral purpose as the visitant ‘s or tourer ‘s judgement about the likelihood to revisit the same finish or the willingness to urge the finish to others. Furthermore, Bigne , Sanchez, & A ; Sanchez ( 2001 ) , Castro, Armario and Ruiz ( 2007 ) , Katsaris ( 2009 ) , McDowall and Ma ( 2012 ) are among the surveies done by using revisit purpose ( buy intention/loyalty ) and recommendation through word-of-mouth ( WOM ) in foretelling tourers ‘ behavioral purpose.

Revisit purpose and positive word of oral cavity recommendation have been understood as indexs of finish trueness, this statement is pointed by Chi and Qu ( 2008 ) . On contrary, even though Yoon and Uysal ( 2005 ) pointed the selling survey indicates that repetition purchases or recommendations to other people are normally referred to as consumer trueness ; a travel finish besides can be consider as a merchandise that tourists can buy back by revisit it or urge finish visited to others.

As a effect, the current research included revisits purpose and urge purpose as the dimension to assemble international tourer ‘s behavioral purpose towards Penang as a travel finish adopted from the old research worker Abdullah and Kian ( 2010 ) .

2.3 DEFINITION DESTINATION OF IMAGE

Broad definition of image usage by many are the combination of beliefs and feeling based on information processing from diverse beginnings overtime which ensuing in an internally recognized mental concept ( Mackay and Fesenmaier, 1997 ) . Ahmed. Z ( 1991 ) in the selling survey defined an image is the mental concept developed by the consumer on the footing of few selected feelings among the inundation of entire feelings. In the later survey on touristry and image, Bosque and Martin ( 2008 ) defined image as a representation of the tourer finish in the person ‘s head.

Meanwhile, there are many definitions used by the old research worker to depict the specific significance of finish image in their survey merely as Crompton ( 1979 ) and Gartner ( 1989 ) which defined finish image as the amount of beliefs, thoughts, and feelings that an person has of the properties and/or activities available at a finish. Similarly, Cho, Chan and Wu ( 1999 ) defined a finish ‘s image consist of people ‘s beliefs, thoughts, or feeling about a finish whereas, Chen and Tsai ( 2007 ) defined finish image as tourer ‘s subjective perceptual experience of the finish world.

Etcher & A ; Ritchie ( 2003 ) in their survey of finish image described it as merely “ feelings of a topographic point ” or “ perceptual experiences of an country ” . Similarly, Baloglu & A ; McCleary ( 1999 ) defined finish image as the look of all cognition, feelings, biass and emotional ideas an person or group has of a peculiar object or topographic point.

In this proposed survey, the research worker is seeking to place the perceptual experience of a topographic point which is Penang ‘s image as an international touristry finish after their trial. Therefore, definition suggested by Baloglu and McCleary ( 1999 ) will be use in this survey.

Above all, conceptualisation of finish images assembled by the two chief dimensions viz. cognitive image and affectional image. ( Baloglu & A ; McClearly, 1999 ; Martin & A ; Bosque,2008 ; Mackay and Fesemaier, 1997, Bigne Bigne , Sanchez, & A ; Sanchez, 2001. Schuster, Sullivan, Morais and Kuehn ( 2008 ) in undertaken a survey of analyzing differences in the finish image formed by three Hudson River Valley in New York among touristry communities in foretelling their hereafter behavior explained cognitive image is focused or connected on the touchable and physical properties of a topographic point whereas affectional image mentioning more on the feelings or a tourist communities obtain during or after the trial. This statement aligned with the old research done by Baloglu & A ; McClearly ( 1999 ) reported that finish image concept has formed by both perceptual/cognitive and affectional ratings.

Furthermore, Martin & A ; Bosque ( 2008 ) listed cognitive image and affectional image dimensions as jointly of import dimension in surveies of finish image.

Perceptual/cognitive ratings refer to the beliefs or knowledge about a finish ‘s properties here as affectional rating refers to feelings toward, or fond regard to it ( Baloglu & A ; McClearly, 1999 ) . The mental representation of a tourer finish is formed in the footing if persons ‘ beliefs about the topographic point ( cognitive image ) , every bit good as their feelings toward it ( affectional image ) ( Martin & A ; Bosque, 2008 ) .

Harmonizing to Um & A ; Cromton ( 1990 ) , cognitive concepts represent an integrating of the internal and external inputs, into the consciousness set of finish and the elicited set of finish. The cognitive constituent of finish image is related to the tourer finish ‘s properties, which can be functional/tangible ( e.g. landscape, cultural attractive forces ) and psychological/abstract ( e.g. cordial reception, atmosphere ) where as the affectional constituent is related to the emotions that a tourer finish is able to arouse ( e.g. pleasance, exhilaration ) ( Martin & A ; Bosque, 2007 ) . It is understand that tourer overall image of a peculiar finish comes out from the cognitive ratings and affectional ratings. Harmonizing to Baloglu & A ; McClearly ( 1999 ) , a common understanding is that this depends on a cognitive rating of objects and affectional responses are formed as a map of the cognitive responses. An overall image of a topographic point is formed as a consequence of both perceptual/cognitive and affectional ratings of that topographic point. Therefore, in the context of this survey, cognitive image and affectional image is the chief constituent or dimension that contributes to destination image.

2.4 THE STAGES OF IMAGE FORMATION

Reported by Baloglu and McCleary ( 1999 ) in the general formation of finish image, there are two chief concept identified viz. stimulus factors and personal factors act uponing image. Construct of stimulus factors assembled by the information beginnings, old experience and distribution in whereas concept of personal factors assembled by the psychological factor such as values, motives and personality while societal factor consist of a individual age, instruction, matrimonial position and others. In short, image construct has widely been accepted as an attitudinal concept consisted of an person ‘s mental representation of cognitive which is cognition ( beliefs ) , affectional which is feelings, and planetary feeling. Figure below presented interactive of a general model of finish image formation.

STIMULUS FACTOR

Information Beginnings

Sum

Type

Previous Experience

Distribution

DESTINATION IMAGE

Perceptual/Cognitive

Affectional

Global

PERSONAL FACTOR

Psychological

Valuess

Motivations

Personality

Social

Age

Education

Marital Status

Others

Figure 2.2

The General Destination Image Formation Established By Baloglu and Mccleary ( 1999 )

In other research by Bosque and Martin ( 2008 ) stated that cognitive image and affectional image of an person can be measure before they experience the visit purpose on holiday topographic point and after their trial to a holiday topographic point. The consequences of this survey subsequently shows that both cognitive image and affectional image of a holiday topographic point gave of import influence towards tourer ‘s behavioral purpose. In add-on, end product of this survey by Bosque and Martin ( 2008 ) will be really cherished for the managerial deductions side such as finish seller in pull offing tourist behavioral purpose towards a peculiar vacation topographic point. Academically, this construct besides outlines several constructs and understanding more in deepness sing tourer physiologically.

FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

Park

.

HOLISTIC ( IMAGENERY )

ATTIBUTES

UNIQUE

Psychological CHARACTERISTICS

Figure 2.3

The Components of Destination Image

On the other manus, Echtner and Ritchie ( 2003 ) highlighted the construct of finish image by including functional features, psychological features, common characteristics, alone characteristics, attributes feeling and holistic feeling. Choi, Chan and Wu ( 1999 ) and Hui and Wan ( 2003 ) for illustration has implement this construct in their surveies of look intoing Hong Kong and Singapore image as a tourers finish. Below are the figure in exemplifying the constituents of finish image suggested by Echtner and Ritchie ( 2003 ) .

Meanwhile, Tasci, Gartner and Cavusgil ( 2007 ) specifically described finish image consist of three chief dimension which is cognitive, affectional and conative. Cognitive indicates individual cognition about an object whereas affective indicates a individual experiencing about an object and conative indicates a individual action on this information. Therefore, figure 2.4 nowadays an synergistic system of image constituent as described by Tasci et Al. ( 2007 ) .

Figure 2.4

Synergistic System of Image Component ( Tasci, Gartner and Cavusgil, 2007 )

2.5 THE ROLE OF IMAGE IN TOURISTS ‘ TRAVEL DECISION MAKING PROCESSES

Above all, Gunn ( 1988 ) tend to explicate image base on the theoretical account of the seven phases of travel experience consequently which begin with accretion of mental images sing vacation experiences followed by change of those images by including farther information and a determination by an single to take a vacation trip. After the 3rd phase, it is followed by the act of and single to go to the finish chose. Following phase is engagement of the person at the finish by sing assorted types of travel services or merchandise offers. Following that is the act of returning to their place and the concluding phase is the change images based on the vacation experience. Figure 1.5 indicates the procedure of the seven phases of travel experiences as suggested by Gunn ( 1988 ) .

As suggested by Gunn ( 1988 ) , the existent formation provinces of finish image formed at phase one, two and seven. The first phase of image is call organic image while the 2nd phase is call induced image and the 3rd phase is describe as firsthand experience used to change the finish ‘s image. Organic image influenced an person ‘s head through stuffs from non-touristic and non-commercial beginnings. The illustration of the non touristic and non commercial beginnings is the general media viz. intelligence studies, magazines, books and films. Besides that, instruction besides is considered as organic image for case school capable such as Geographic topic learn in the schoolroom. Other than that, the sentiments an single received from friends or household besides considered as organic image.

Figure 2.5

Procedure of The Seven Stages Of Travel Experiences ( Gunn, 1988 )

On the other manus, the 2nd phase which is induce image derives from a uninterrupted attempt to develop, promote and publicize a peculiar finish by the finish or touristry sellers in other words, beginnings an single get commercially. Example of the commercial beginnings for information is travel publicizing hoarding, travel publicity from a web site, travel magazines, travel bundles provided by going company and travel booklets ( Echtner and Ritchie, 2003 ) . Therefore, it can be understand that induce image are by and large accepted and utilize as an information beginnings widely by traveler for going because the easiness of accessing it compare to organic image which is on the other manus are really limited and ulterior image will be alter after an single truly experience it.

To sum up the procedure of finish image, it is found that image can be derived from before the trial of an person and after the trial of an person. As supported by Bosque and Martin ( 2008 ) image really go through pre experience phase and station experience phase. In add-on, this would assist finish sellers to understand more image as it will help in placing the strength and failing their selling schemes and subsequently improvize it.

To sum up the procedure of finish image, it is found that image can be derived from before the trial of an person and after the trial of an person. As supported by Bosque and Martin ( 2008 ) image really go through pre experience phase and station experience phase. In add-on, this would assist finish sellers to understand more image as it will help in placing the strength and failing their selling schemes and subsequently improvize it.

Furthermore, with the mention from Choi, Chan and Wu ( 1999 ) , in order to organize an image that is favorable globally, it is important to acknowledge what tourer have in head about the finish and how this impacts upon the selling of metropoliss as tourer finishs. It will besides supply helper to better finishs image which subsequently can be of import to place the right mark markets for touristry publicity.

In short, this survey is set to place image an person have in head after their Penang trial. Furthermore, Ahmed ( 1991 ) emphasized that perceived image by the tourers are really important in finding finish ‘s fight as a travel finish and it can besides act upon tourers purpose to revisit it if they have a crystal clear image about the finish that they have visited.

2.5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DESTINATION IMAGE AND BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION

Abdullah and Kim ( 2010 ) ran a survey on Langkawi Island to place the the relationship between finish image and behavioral purpose among international tourer in Langkawi. The survey reported that finish image which is cognitive image and affectional image has a direct influence on international tourer. Besides, the survey found that both cognitive and affectional image is really of import at giving influence towards behavioral purpose. This is supported by Chen and Tsai ( 2007 ) which besides found that finish image has a direct impact on behavioral purpose viz. purpose to revisit and purpose to urge. Since the constituent of finish image straight influences behavioral purpose, it can be utilize to farther investigate factors act uponing tourers behavioral purpose of a finish or touristry attractive force.

In other research worker by Bigne , Sanchez, and Sanchez ( 2001 ) , Cooper et Al ( 1993 ) , Mansfeld ( 1992 ) and Qu et Al ( 2011 ) mentioned that it has been found and known that the finish image are really of import in the finish choice procedure and for tourer behaviors in general. The importance of behavioral purpose addition much apprehension by research workers when

Harmonizing to Baloglu & A ; McClearly ( 1999 ) , finish spends considerable clip and money to make and heighten a favorable image. The clip and money might be utilize a batch at this early phase nevertheless one time the image are clear it will supply benefits to that peculiar finish.

Clear image of a finish can pull tourist attending and purpose to revisit and urge it to other every bit good. Therefore, automatically it becomes one of the advertizement or publicity platforms. Following, as reported by Bigne, Sianchez and Sianchez ( 2001 ) in their survey, tourers ‘ behavior can be expected to be partially conditioned by the image that they have of finishs such as the more favorable the image of a finish, the higher the chance that the tourer will urge it and the more favorable the image of a finish, the higher the chance that the tourer will return in the hereafter. This is because tourer signifier an attitude based on past experience, which will act upon future purposes.

There are several surveies which related with behavioral purpose as formed from perceptual experience of image and quality of finish properties ( Bigne et al, 2001 ; Baloglu and Love, 2005 ; Chen and Tsai, 2007 ; Lu and Chai, 2009 ) . Chen and Tsai ( 2007 ) and Bigne et Al ( 2001 ) pointed that image is a direct ancestor of sensed quality, satisfaction, purpose to revisit and purpose to urge the finish. The survey by Bigne et Al. ( 2001 ) showed image will impact the station purchase rating and the purpose to urge every bit good as the purpose to revisit which can better image of a finish in viing successfully in competitory finish market.

Early on survey conducted by Pearce ( 1982 ) on little samples of tourers sing Greece and Morocco showed the post-travel images of these two states demonstrated a positive relationship between finish image and behavioral purposes. Recent survey by Mohamad et Al. ( 2012 ) , Chen and Tsai ( 2007 ) , and Tasci and Gartner ( 2007 ) besides showed that there is a positive relationship between finish image and behavioral purpose.

In fact, Chen and Tsai ( 2007 ) proved that finish image have the most of import influences on behavioral purpose straight compared to other ancestors of behavioral purpose such as sensed quality and satisfaction. Besides, the survey presented finish image as the independent variables that affected the dependent variables ( behavioral purpose ) after the visits as supported by Bigne, Sanchez and Sanchez ( 2001 ) on their survey for interrelatedness of touristry image, rating variables and after purchase behavior which found that finish image has a significance relationship towards purpose to return and purpose to urge.

2.6 TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS

Harmonizing to Weaver and Lawton ( 2002 ) , features of foreign tourer include travel comrade, length of stay, travel agreement, intent of visits, and frequence of visit. Hsu and Kang ( 2007 ) in the surveies include all the mentioned features of foreign tourers, state of occupants and type of adjustment.

Hsu and Kang ( 2007 ) examined how international visitants to Hong Kong can be segmented by utilizing the CHAID technique. In that survey, the research worker combined demographic ( age and income ) and travel features ( travel intent and frequence of visits ) as a section base. The cleavage of international tourers to Hong Kong is for the intent of developing schemes for merchandise design, service bringing and promotional run planning. Therefore this survey discovered international travel market section with difference features.

Khalilah ( 2006 ) besides combine the demographic profile and features. The survey discovered combination of demographic ( age, business, instruction background and state of beginnings ) and features ( intent of visits, travel comrade, length of stay, manner of conveyance, adjustment and frequence ) of visits of the Middle Eastern tourists in Kuala Lumpur can assist edifice comfy image that can pull tourers, bring forth more international travel market sections with difference travel features and it can be use to plan a favorable image among the Middle Eastern in Kuala Lumpur.

Law, Cheung and Lo ( 2004 ) undertake survey to place tourer ‘s travel features among Hong Kong citizens in bettering finish selling for Hong Kong outbound touristry market. The survey implements demographic inquiry as and their travel information to find their travel features. Among travel characteristic information used are travel agreement, travel comrade, mainpurpose of the trip and length of stay. Beside, the survey besides include method of obtaining information for their trip in order to place which information beginnings most utilize by them. Other than that, the survey listed all possible activities that the traveler took portion. Listing those activities is to happen out which activity most preferred by them. Subsequently, in the current research of Penang image as an international touristry finish, the research worker adopted the travel characteristic information inquiry for travel feature in subdivision A.

Chapter THREE

RESERACH METHODOLOGY

3.0 INTRDOUCTION

This chapter provides information sing research method used for this survey. Information was divided into 10 major sub-chapter which is research design, sample size and population, informations aggregation method, research instrument, inquiries in the questionnaire, pre-test, cogency, pilot survey, dependability trial and information analysis.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

This research intent is to place the sensed image of Penang among international tourers and besides to place the relationship between their perceived image and their purpose to urge or to revisit Penang. The research worker referred to old survey to mensurate the sensed image and the international tourers ‘ behavioral purpose. In order to carry on such survey, this research utilizes quantitative research method which provides in sense of taking capable, informations aggregation technique, processs for garnering informations and informations analysis technique ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . Therefore, this survey has chosen descriptive research design utilizing quantitative attack.

Harmonizing to Sekaran ( 2010 ) , descriptive survey is use in order to determine and be able to depict the features of the variable of involvement in a state of affairs.

Besides, correlativity survey is used to happen out the consequence of the hypothesis proving. It is to happen out whether or non the sensed image among international tourers ‘ visited Penang are correlated to their purpose to urge Penang to others and to revisit Penang.

Hence, the undermentioned sub-chapter provides farther account on sample size and population for this research.

3.2 SAMPLE SIZE AND POPULATION

Harmonizing to Castillo ( 2010 ) , a research population is by and large a big aggregation of persons or objects that is the chief focal point of a scientific question. It is for the benefit of the population that researches are done. However, due to the big sizes of populations, research workers frequently can non prove every person in the population because it is excessively expensive and time-consuming. This is the ground why the research worker relies on trying technique. Therefore, this research used non-probability sampling technique.

In order to garner all the information of the survey from international tourers who have visited Penang, specific respondents are needed. Therefore to near the specific respondents ‘ convenience trying techniques was apply because of the freedom to take whoever can be reach.

Convenience sampling is refers to the aggregation of information from members of the population who are handily available to supply required informations ( Sekaran, 2010 ) .

Since this survey are placing Penang ‘s image as an international tourer finish therefore the population who are handily available to supply required informations are among the international tourer who have visited Penang. Harmonizing to the statistic of international tourer reaching to Penang in 2011 there were about there million of international tourers have visited Penang. Based on Krecji and Morgan ( 1970 ) tabular array for finding sample size for research activities, for that given population of three million, a sample of 384 is needed to stand for the population.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION METHOD

Data was collected in the Penang international airdrome going hall between of 20th October to 30th of October 2012. Reasons of taking this day of the month because it provides ease towards the research worker in administering the study inquiry. Other than that, this period of clip merely permitted by the governments of Malaysia Airport Berhad to to the full use the going hall for the intent of this research. Respondents which are the international tourer were approached and informed about the intent of the study in progress before they were given the questionnaire.

3.4 RESERCH INSTRUMENT

This survey adopted a set of questionnaires from Abdullah and Kian ( 2010 ) . There are three variable measured in this questionnaires which is cognitive image, affectional image and behavioral purpose. In mensurating the three variables, closed ended inquiries which utilizing a numerical Likert graduated table is used. Table 3.1 Aare demoing scope of Likert graduated table used in mensurating the points.

Table 3.1

Scope of Likert Scale Used In Measuring Variables

Variable

Measurement

Beginning of Scales

Cognitive Image

1 = “ Strongly Disagree ”

2 = “ Disagree ”

3 = “ Impersonal ”

4 = “ Agree ”

5 = “ Strongly Agree ”

Abdullah and Kian ( 2010 )

Affectional Image

1 = “ Strongly Disagree ”

2 = “ Disagree ”

3 = “ Impersonal ”

4 = “ Agree ”

5 = “ Strongly Agree ”

Abdullah and Kian ( 2010 )

Behavioral Purpose

1 = “ Strongly Disagree ”

2 = “ Disagree ”

3 = “ Impersonal ”

4 = “ Agree ”

5 = “ Strongly Agree ”

Abdullah and Kian ( 2010 )

On the other manus, in placing the alone image perceived by international tourer on Penang, the research worker provided a set of unfastened ended inquiry adopted from Choi, Chan and Wu ( 1999 ) . The list of inquiry will further shows in the following subchapter.

3.5 QUESTIONS USED IN THE QUESTIONNAIRES

In the inquiry brochure questionnaire was divided into three major subdivisions. Each subdivision contains inquiries turn toing the variables to accommodate the research aims.

Section A was to entree respondents ‘ demographic profile and characteristic profile. Demographic profile was entree by gender, age, matrimonial position, state of abode, income degree, highest instruction background and business. On the other manus, features profile was entree by money spent during the trip, activities during the trip, travel agreement, chief intent of sing Penang, travel comrade, chief manner of transit acquiring about Penang, topographic point stayed, frequence of sing Penang, beginning of information for the trip and length of stay. Table 3.2 provide overview of inquiries in subdivision A.

Table 3.2

Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Gender

Male

Female

Age ( old ages )

Less than 20 old ages old

20 – 29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60 and above

Marital Status

Married

Single

State of Residence

( Please State )

Highest instruction background

Primary

Secondary

Certificate/diploma

Degree or Higher

Occupation

Student

Freelance

Housewife

Clerical/Supervisory

Executive/Managerial

Professional

Retired

Others

Table 3.3

Characteristic Profile of The Respondents

Money spent during the trip

Less than $ 1000

$ 1000 to $ 1999

$ 2000 to $ 3999

$ 4000 to $ 4999

$ 5000 to 6999

$ 7000 to $ 8999

$ 9000 and above

Activities during the trip

Sample local nutrient

City rubber-necking

Visit scenic landmarks

Shoping

Restaurants/dining out

Taking pictures/films

Visit national parks/forests

Visit friends/relatives

Visit amusement topographic points

Tour countryside

Visit historic topographic points

Visit galleries/museums

Sunbathing/beach activities

Swiming

Water athleticss

Attend festivals/events

Short guided jaunts

Attend featuring events

Cycling

Golfing/tennis

Others

Travel agreement

Independent travel

Group tour with travel agency/package circuit

Others

Main intent of sing Penang

Sightsing / Vacation

Academic Visit

Business

Visiting Friends/Relatives

Others

Traveling comrade

Entirely

Spouse

Childs

Parents/parents-in-law

Other relations

Friends

Organised group/club etc

Colleagues/business associates

Schoolmates

Others

Main manner of transit acquiring about Penang

Walking

Rented Conveyance

Public Transport

Tour Bus/ Coach

Others

Topographic point stayed

Hotel

Resort

Service Apartment

Guest House

Others

Frequency of visit to Penang

First Visit

Second Visit

Third or more visits

Method of obtaining information for the trip

Travel agent/ circuit operator

Books/library

Ads

Friends/family

Club/associations

Newspaper/magazines/article

Internet

others

Length of stay

Less than 3days

4 yearss to 6 yearss

7 yearss to 9 yearss

10 yearss to 16 yearss

17 yearss to 29 yearss

30 yearss and more

Following is subdivision B which is design to place respondents ‘ perceptual experience on Penang after their visits. In order to ease respondents, the inquiry for cognitive image has been divided into five sub-sections which include finish trade name, amusement, nature, heritage, civilization and history and Sun and sea. Traveling frontward is affectional image and three unfastened ended inquiry on alone image. Table 3.4 below shows points or cardinal property of Penang under cognitive image.

Table 3.4

Items for Cognitive Image

NO.

DIMENSIONS/ITEMS

Destination Brand

1.

Penang offers personal safety

2.

Penang has good quality of life

3.

Penang is clean

4.

Penang has good name and repute

5.

Penang is surrounded by hospitable and friendly people

6.

Penang has good substructure of hotels and flats

Entertainment

1.

Penang offers good dark life

2.

Penang offers good shopping topographic points

3.

Penang offers diverse gastronomy

4.

Penang is an alien topographic point

Nature

1.

Penang has great vegetations and zoologies

2.

Penang has dramatic landscapes

Heritage, Culture and History

1.

Penang has typical history and heritage

2.

Penang has good vintage edifices

3.

Penang has interesting museums/exhibits

4.

Penang has tempting and colorful civilization events and festivals

5.

Penang has equal advertising of cultural activities

6.

Penang has equal agencies by which

citizens can derive entree to civilization

7.

A visit to Penang would be a good cultural experience

8.

Penang is surrounded with unusual ways of life and imposts

Sun and Sea

1.

Penang has a good conditions

2.

Penang has beautiful beaches

Table 3.5

Key Attribute Of Penang Under Affective Image

NO.

Item

1.

Penang is an interesting topographic point to be visited for vacation

2.

Penang is a restful topographic point

3.

I enjoy sing Penang

4.

Penang makes me experience happy

Table 3.5 shows item points or cardinal property of Penang under on affectional image.

Table 3.6 shows open ended inquiry to entree respondent ‘s perceived image viz. cognitive image, affectional image and alone image in their head sing Penang. This inquiry is supplying chance for this survey to indentify unlisted sensed image of international tourers on Penang.

Table 3.6

Open Ending Question for Respondent ‘s Perceive Image ( Cognitive Image, Affective Image and Unique Image ) In Their Mind Sing Penang

NO.

Item

1.

What images or features come to mind when you think of Penang as a holiday finish?

2.

How would you depict the ambiance or temper that you would anticipate to see while sing Penang?

3.

List any typical or alone tourer attractive forces that you can believe of Penang.

3.6 PRE-TEST

Soon after the first bill of exchange inquiry was ready, the research worker distributed the questionnaire to few pupils and lectors from UiTM Shah Alam to seek feedback sing the layout, diction, and easiness of apprehension of the measurement points. Once, the pre-test was done, the research worker edited the questionnaire based on the feedback.

3.6 VALIDITY

Validity is concerned with weather the research worker develop the right instrument to mensurate the right construct of the survey ( Sekaran, 2010 ) . It is besides to find the most appropriate properties to be used in mensurating cognitive image in this survey. Hence, the research worker identified Numberss of touristry experts in Malaysia to assist in clear up the instrument for this survey. Meeting was set up upon formalizing the inquiries with touristry officer in Penang State of Tourism Malaysia, Marketing Department in Tourism Malaysia and Ministry of Tourism Malaysia. Later, the feedback was used to make minor alterations and preceded with farther survey.

3.7 PILOT STUDY

Since alterations were done by run intoing experts in touristry industry and academe, the research worker proceeded to the following phase by running the pilot survey. Pilot survey is run before the existent informations aggregation period to measure the cogency of the instrument. Harmonizing to Hopkins ( 2000 ) the pilot survey should hold the same sampling process and techniques as in the larger survey. Therefore, a sum of 30 respondents dwelling of international tourers were involved chosen at random in the going hall of Penang International Airport.

3.8 RELIABILITY Trial

In this phase, questionnaires collected from pilot survey were tested by using Cronbach ‘s Alpha coefficient for internal consistence dependability utilizing Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) . Cronbach ‘s Alpha is used to mensurate dependability of the instrument peculiarly for portion two and portion three. Cronbach ‘s Alpha is the most normally recognized step of dependability for any instrument when mensurating attitudes of people ( Pallant, 2005 ) . Based on Sekaran ( 2003 ) measures in this survey are judged to be dependable if Cronbach ‘s coefficient alpha is 0.7 or greater. However, Nunnally ( 1967 ) mentioned that the coefficient alpha in the scope from 0.5 to 0.6 is still considered at the minimal acceptable degree of dependability. Hence, table 3.7 below are demoing the consequence of this pilot survey.

Table 3.7

Consequence of Pilot Study Using Cronbach ‘s Alpha Coefficient for Internal Consistency Reliability

Part 2: Cognitive Image

Alpha Coefficient

0.812

Number of Items

22

Number of Respondents

30

Part 2: Affectional Image

Alpha Coefficient

0.643

Number of Items

4

Number of Respondents

30

Part 3: BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION

Alpha Coefficient

0.790

Number of Items

4

Number of Respondents

30

Cronbach ‘s Coefficient Alpha for cognitive image is 0.812, affect image is 0.643 and behavioral purpose is 0.790. Consequences above found that the Cronbach ‘s Alpha Coefficient is above 0.6 is consider dependable and internally consistent.

3.9 DATA ANALYSIS

In analysing the existent informations collected for this survey, a sum of three major variables were taken into consideration viz. cognitive image, affectional image and behavioral purpose. Datas were analyzed by running entered informations utilizing Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) 2.0 package. Consequences were presented through descriptive statistics and individual additive arrested development analysis consequences. On the other manus, replies for open-ended inquiry in alone image subdivision were listed in the tabular array.

3.10 Decision

This chapter had cover the methods use to garner relevant informations towards accomplishing the aim and replying the research inquiries. Then following chapter will certainly uncover the findings of the informations.

Chapter FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter revealed the analysis consequence of the survey divided to five subdivision consist of:

Research dependability proving

Demographic profile of the international tourers visited Penang

Research analysis on sensed image of Penang among international tourer

Research analysis on the relationship between the variables

Drumhead

4.1 RESEARCH RELIABILITY TESTING

In this survey, the research worker used Cronbach ‘s Alpha to mensurate dependability of the instrument peculiarly for portion two and portion three. Cronbach ‘s Alpha is the most normally recognized step of dependability for any instrument when mensurating attitudes of people ( Pallant, 2005 ) . Table 4.1 shows the consequences of the analysis.

Table 4.1

Cronbach ‘s Alpha Analysis to Measure Reliability of the Instrument

Part 2: Cognitive Image

Alpha Coefficient

0.870

Number of Items

22

Number of Respondents

185

Part 2: Affectional Image

Alpha Coefficient

0.857

Number of Items

4

Number of Respondents

185

Part 3: BEHAVIOURAL INTENTION

Alpha Coefficient

0.820

Number of Items

4

Number of Respondents

185

Therefore, the dependability trial consequences of Alpha coefficient are acceptable to continue with farther informations analysis.

4.2 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF RESPONDENT

4.2.1 Gender

Table 4.2

Frequency and Percentage of Demographic Characteristic by Gender

Gender

Frequency

Percentage

Male

117

63

Female

68

37

Entire

185

100

Table above shows frequence and per centum of demographic characteristic by gender of respondents. The per centum of male are higher ( 63 % ) compared to per centum of female respondents ( 37 % ) . This is due to the fact that male are still the breadwinner of the household and travel a batch. Furthermore, female are fear at the feeling towards security when traveling.

4.2.2 Age

Table 4.3

Frequency and Percentage of Demographic by Range of Age

Age

Frequency

Percentage

Less than 20 old ages

5

3

20 old ages – 29 old ages

56

30

30 old ages – 39 old ages

74

40

40 old ages – 49 old ages

26

14

50 old ages – 59 old ages

14

8

60 old ages and above

10

5

Entire

185

100

Table above shows the frequence and per centum of demographic by scope of respondent ‘s age. Majority of the respondent ranged between 30 old ages to 39 old ages of age ( 40 % ) followed by respondent aged 20 old ages to 29 old ages old ( 30 % ) . Following is answering scope between 40 old ages to 49 old ages of age which represented by 14 % followed by respondents age between 50 to 59 old ages ( 8 % ) , 60 old ages and above ( 5 % ) and the least proportion of respondents ‘ age are less than 20 old ages with merely 3 % .

4.2.3 Marital Status

Table 4.4

Frequency and Percentage of Demographic by Marital Status

Marital position

Frequency

Percentage

Single

112

61

Married

73

39

Entire

185

100

In the tabular array above, revealed the proportion of respondents ‘ matrimonial position. There are 61 % of individual respondents ‘ proportions which against 39 % of married respondents.

4.2.4 State of Origin

Table 4.5

Frequency and Percentage of Demographic by Country and Continent

State Of Resident By Continent

Frequency

Percentage By State

Percentage By Continent

Europe

United Kingdom

24

47

Switzerland

8

16

France

3

6

Norway

3

6

The Netherlands

1

2

Germany

9

18

Italy

1

2

Suomi

1

2

Soviet union

1

2

Sub-Total

51

100

27.6

Oceanica

Australia

48

92

New Zealand

4

8

Sub-Total

52

100

28.1

Asia

Singapore

17

24

Japan

3

4

China

16

23

Siam

17

24

Dutch east indies

6

8

U.A.E

4

6

Saudi Arabia

1

1

United arab republic

2

1

Brunei

1

1

Philippines

1

1

Hong Kong

1

1

Kyrgyzstan

2

3

Sub-Total

71

100

38.4

North America

Unites State of America

10

67

Canada

5

33

Sub-Total

15

100

8.1

Entire

185

Table 4.5 above shows item of demographic profile by state respondents ‘ state of beginning. Many of the respondents are from Asia continent with the proportion of 38.4 % where the bulk are them are from Singapore. There is besides big figure of answering coming from Oceania with the proportion of 28.1 % where the bulk are from Australia. Next, 27.6 % respondents ‘ proportion coming from Europe continent where bulk of them is from United Kingdom. Lastly, 8.1 % respondents ‘ proportion coming from America continent where bulk of them is from United State of America.

4.2.5 Education

Table 4.6

Frequency and Percentage of Demographic by Education Level

Education

Frequency

Percentage

Primary

3

2

Secondary

13

7

Certificate/diploma

41

23

Degree or higher

124

68

Entire

185

100

Table above indicates the frequence and per centum of demographic by respondents ‘ instruction degree. Most of the respondent obtained degree or higher instruction degree ( 68 % ) , followed by certification or sheepskin ( 23 % ) , and among the lowest instruction degree are secondary ( 7 % ) and primary ( 2 % ) .

4.2.6 Occupation

Table 4.7

Frequency and Percentage of Demographic by Occupation

Occupation

Frequency

Percentage

Student

25

14

Freelance

26

13

Housewife

3

2

Clerical/supervisor

8

4

Executive / Managerial

63

34

Professional

34

19

Retiree

6

3

Others

20

11

Entire

;

;