Today, touristry is an economic every bit good as a societal phenomenon harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization. Because the travel and touristry industry is one of the fastest turning economic sectors worldwide it counts to the chief income beginning for about every planetary state. As a consequence of this growing an increasing variegation every bit good as a tough competition among finishs arose and a decline is anything but foreseeable from a current point of position ( UNWTO, 2010 ) .
Based upon the above mentioned fact it is self-explanatory that both public and private sectors runing from smaller concerns to international corporations account touristry selling as extreme precedence ( Middleton et al. , 2009 ) .
Each and every finish tries to pull as much travelers as possible to prevail in the extremely competitory market of touristry. Therefore it is indispensable for sellers to understand the theory of market cleavage, although it remains one of the more hard selling constructs to turn into profitable world ( Croft, 1994 ) . Nevertheless, Wagner ( 2006 ) argues that it is more of import than of all time to concentrate on metameric mark groups in order to supply single offers and interventions in times of increasing client demand.
Since the mid 1990s the planetary touristry industry turns towards another profit-yielding niche market section ; viz. that of the homosexual and sapphic one ( Clift et al. , 2002 ) . However, during a recent conference held by assorted cheery touristry expertnesss at the ITB Berlin 2010 it was mentioned more than one time that cheery touristry is non longer considered as a niche market today. Guaracino ( 2007 ) even argues that the homosexual and sapphic touristry has emerged to a planetary concern and the competition for meetings, conventions, featuring competitions and leisure visitants boosts rapidly within this field.
In the twelvemonth of 1998 the Vienna Tourist Board was one of the first DMOs that commenced go toing to the homosexual audience by advancing a gay-friendly finish. Today Vienna is already known as a cheery metropolis from a universe broad position, but Europe ‘s urban finishs compose a really strong competition.
Barely conceivable sing that homosexualism was illegal in Austria non so long ago, more exactly until 1971 ( Haggerty, 2000 ) . Where a bulk of today ‘s society still confront this issue skeptically more unshockable business communities count the GLBT community among their most possible mark group for a long clip.
Addressing the jobs that emerge when marketing the touristry supply for homosexuals and lesbians the complexness of homosexual diverseness is ranked foremost. On the one manus there is the demand to separate between homosexuals and tribades on the whole as their attitudes and believes are dissimilar whereas the mark group of the same gender has to be subdivided once more on the other manus. In making so it is besides indispensable to maintain in head the subgroup of the pseudonym gays every bit good as the delusory religion in stereotypes. Thus an in-depth research into this topic is of great advantage in order to turn to homophiles accurately, which brings us to the 2nd enlistment.
Gay travelers are among the most under researched groups and there is still a huge deficiency of meaningful studies due to instead virgin dirt. Guaracino ( 2007 ) states that the biggest issue sing GLBT research is inquiring people about their sexual orientation. Until today sellers have n’t figured out how to turn to this inquiry decently, therefore the little sum of bing surveies consists of self-identified GLBT respondents merely. However, in order to supply a true result a random sample of homosexual and sapphic travelers would be critical.
Refering the homosexual and sapphic selling conducted by the Vienna Tourism Board another challenge appears. While the United States as an outrider every bit good as some European metropoliss like London, Paris, Barcelona and Berlin have identified the potency of this promising market for a long clip Vienna is in-between tail-light with still small experience refering this field. Nevertheless the metropolis of Vienna has set a perfect initial point with the Life Ball and possesses a high capableness of development. Mentioning to the thirteenth one-year homosexual and sapphic touristry survey conducted by LGBT ( 2008, p. 30 ) Austria is ranked on topographic point figure 14 among the top 20 European finishs mentioned by homosexuals. Whereas the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are the top five European finishs for leisure and concern travel Austria shows up somewhat in the rear portion which likely indicates a fail offer appealing the homosexual mark group.
Purposes of the survey
Aim of this survey is to research the potency of Vienna as a gay-friendly finish by making a theoretical analysis every bit good as a study. Even if a metropolis has the capableness to function as an attractive homosexual location a good selling scheme is important to ask for the GLBT community ( Guaracino, 2007 ) . Therefore the homosexual and sapphic selling run conducted by the Vienna Tourist Board is traveling to be researched every bit good.
The undermentioned question merely summarizes the chief intent of the paper:
‘Does the metropolis of Vienna has a good selling construct and taps its full potency to be acknowledged as a gay-friendly touristry finish in order to pull GLBT travelers? ‘
Therefore the Centre of attending prevarications on the aid of appropriate selling, undertaken in order to make this promising mark group.
Finally the focal point refering this paper is based on constructing up a composing of recommendations on how to market the metropolis of Vienna decently as a favorable homosexual finish to be of help for the Vienna Tourist Board.
The undermentioned questions are the footing of the overall survey on the one manus and service to carry on the design of the study on the other.
Does the predating selling of homophiles entail a higher demand and therefore indispensable to spread out research in the field of this topic?
What are the concrete differences of the homosexual and sapphic mark group compared to others? To what extend does the homosexual section distinguish from other bunchs?
Does Vienna set about the right selling to advance homosexual and tribades?
Does the metropolis of Vienna offer delighting tourer characteristics and amusement to pull homosexual tourers?
What steps can be taken to be acknowledged as a favorable homosexual finish in the foreseeable hereafter?
It is non an purpose of this survey to research the topic of homosexual orientation itself. It should simply be investigated how to market homosexuals and tribades as a specific mark group and therefore a general apprehension of homosexual forms is required to measure.
Another non-objective is the statement of personal perceptual experience and attitude inauspicious homosexuals and tribades. Although the thesis presumes a certain credence sing homosexual personalities it should n’t be guidance on how to move or act during societal or commercial intercourse. Today ‘s society is fundamentally wide minded and hopefully the subject turn toing the credence wo n’t be even necessary to advert any longer in the foreseeable hereafter.
Last but non least the detailed suggestions in the terminal of this paper are merely effectual for advancing Vienna as a cheery metropolis. Even though general intimations may be applicable for other cheery finishs, it applies to Austria ‘s capital and can merely be realized by the Vienna Tourist Board.
Academic methodological analysis
In general this unmarried man thesis is an exploratory survey based on primary every bit good as secondary informations.
The first subdivision trades with a literature reappraisal consisting definitions and analyses refering cheery touristry, the metropolis of Vienna and its rivals. This subdivision relies chiefly on scientific authorship of some cardinal writers like Guaracino and Clift et al. every bit good as on articles from the World Wide Web. Although the selected subject is instead virgin dirt a reasonably wide pick of mention books every bit good as relevant articles in newspapers and magazines is available to function as authorship beginnings. Furthermore already bing statistics and studies covering the homosexual and sapphic market section are integrated within this choice.
In order to roll up primary informations an electronic study by dint of questionnaires has taken topographic point. Due to instead complex handiness of the coverage a trying size of at least 40 individuals was determined. The content of the study is based on some hypotheses that were created by agencies of the theoretical background.
The undermentioned subdivision so relies on suggestions gained from the results of the study. All relevant findings are analysed in deepness and a recommendation of action is prepared for the Vienna Tourist Board in order to tap its full possible advancing Vienna as a cheery metropolis.
Composition of the paper
After the debut in the first portion, the 2nd chapter dressed ores on rudimentss and definitions of touristry, homosexualism and gay-friendly touristry in general. In this connexion a common apprehension should be developed as a situational analysis including all relevant facts sing the topic will be farther assumed in the 3rd subdivision. Hence characteristics based on the metropolis of Vienna, the homosexual client every bit good as the competition and confederates in this field will be described in item. Whereas this subdivision closes with a PEST Analysis the 4th chapter trades in bend with the SWOT Analysis. An in-depth dislocation of the metropolis ‘s strengths, failings, chances and menaces is of import to derive farther penetration into the topic and is besides indispensable for the following subdivision within this paper, viz. the 1 of the market cleavage. Chapter six delves into the topic of the empiricist philosophy. After stipulating the rudimentss of the study attack every bit good as the questionnaire design and its end an analysis of the result follows. Finally the subdivision ends with a suggestion based on the result of the empiricist philosophy. As every academic paper the ultimate shutting of the unmarried man thesis contains a summarizing decision with an add-on of the bibliography at full length every bit good as the appendices.
The Definition of Tourism
Unfortunately there exist a huge figure of general attacks to the topic of touristry. The UNWTO is consecutively busy polishing the complex phenomenon of this industry and besides Rojek and Urry ( 1997 cited Hall 2004, p.5 ) stated that ‘tourism is a term that is waiting to be deconstructed ‘ .
On the other manus Kaspar ( 1996 ) merely defines touristry as
the entirety of the dealingss and manifestations ensuing from the alteration of location and abode of people for whom the abode is non the major and lasting life and working topographic point.
More late the term touristry is likewise explained by Goeldner ( 2005, p.5 ) as
The procedures, activities and results originating from the relationships and the interactions among tourers, touristry providers, host authoritiess, host communities, and environing environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitants.
Harmonizing to the UNWTO tourers are
Peoples who travel to and remain in topographic points outside their usual environment for more than 24 hours and non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents non related to the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the topographic point visited.
However a generalisation of tourers should n’t be presumed. Cooper ( 2008 ) stated that tourers are in fact non a homogeneous group as it consists of different personalities, demographics and experiences. There are two basic attacks tourers can be classified. On the one manus a differentiation between domestic and international tourers can be made whereas on the other manus the intent of visit is the decisive factor. Whereas cheery tourers may fall into all of the three classs, be it concern and professional, other touristry intents or leisure and diversion, this survey clearly focuses on the later one which includes vacation, athleticss and cultural touristry and sing friends and relations. When speaking about homosexual tourers within this paper merely a tourer with homosexual orientation is meant.
By and large there exist three basic classs when speaking about sexual orientation ; the heterosexualism, the homosexualism, and the androgyny. Homosexuals can be either adult females or work forces who feel chiefly or entirely sexually and emotionally attracted by the same gender. Whilst in the past heterosexism was assumed to be the norm homosexualism is scientifically commissioned presents. It is a fact that this sort of sexual orientation is non a disease, break, or aberrance although most people count themselves to the straight persons. Clift et Al. ( 2002 ) stated that ‘homosexuality is every bit natural as heterosexualism ‘ .
Gardenswartz and Rowe ( 1994, cited by Clift et al. , 2002 ) have built up the undermentioned model of all dimensions over which people have no control and hence should hold top precedence when it comes to ‘protection against favoritism ‘ ( Clift et al. , 2002 ) .
Figure 1 Core dimensions of diverseness
Beginning: based on Gardenswartz and Rowe ( 1994, cited by Clift et al. , 2002, p.90 )
The figure above lists all natural dimensions, whereas sexual orientation is one out of six. This leads to the fact that attractive forces by the same sex have ever existed and most likely ever will be in every clip, every society and every walk of life ( Clift et al. , 2002 ) .
Definitions for a common apprehension
In order to hold a common apprehension it is of import to specify a few footings mentioning to the topic that are in common usage and therefore besides applied throughout this paper.
The term ‘lesbian ‘ derived from the Grecian word ‘lesbos ‘ and refers to females who are attracted by the same sex whereas ‘gay ‘ bases for male homophiles. However, at this point it is important to observe that the phrase ‘gay ‘ has mostly replaced ‘homosexual ‘ and by utilizing this look it frequently relates to both, male and female ( Guaracino, 2007 ; Clift et al. , 2002 ) .
By and large the homosexual groups may be summarized within the umbrella term ‘queer ‘ every bit good as the short cut ‘GLBT ‘ denoting homosexuals, tribades, bisexuals, and transgender ( Guaracino, 2007 ; Johnston, 2005 ) .
The phrase ‘bisexual ‘ convey an attractive force to both sexes ; work forces and adult females. However Guaracino ( 2007 ) argues that bisexual does non assume non-monogamy.
On the other manus, ‘transsexuals ‘ or ‘transgender ‘ are people that identify themselves as a member of the opposite sex and may besides hold its physical features. However, transsexual people are non needfully gay or sapphic ( Guaracino, 2007 ) .
After all common GLBT footings are exhaustively defined it is important to advert that the words ‘straight ‘ or ‘mainstream ‘ are sometimes used to turn to heterosexual contemporariess.
Furthermore Guaracino ( 2007 ) states that the footings sexual orientation, gender or sexual individuality can be used in order to be accurate and impersonal whereas the phrase sexual penchant should be avoided.
When speaking about Pride parades or Pride events this merely indicates a jubilation of the GLBT community that normally take topographic point in June to mark the Stonewall Inn public violences ( Guaracino, 2007 ) .
A common apprehension of the above listed single nomenclatures is indispensable for the residuary chapter that deals with definitions of larger constructs such as ‘gay touristry ‘ , ‘gay-friendly ‘ and ‘gay welcoming ‘ .
Gay touristry, besides referred to as GLBT touristry, is merely a mixture of both impressions described above. Thus the phrase may be summarized as holidaies undertaken by homosexuals and tribades that allow them go forthing behind their day-to-day swot in order to indulge in wholly cheery environments ( Clift et al. , 2002 ) . Clift et Al. ( 2002, p.12 ) define homosexual and sapphic touristry as
A comparatively new and turning economic and societal phenomenon, which clearly has significant cultural and personal significance for homosexual travelers themselves, for their state of beginning and for the finish they visit.
Additionally the writers reveal that GLBT travelers do non provide for a narrow homosexual male function but besides encompass the societal, cultural, economic and political every bit good as the wellness dimensions of life.
As the homosexual community features particular demands and involvements while going, the touristry industry tries to react with well-directed offers. Hence, many touristry organisations like hotels, air hoses, and cruise ships face homosexuals and tribades as a promising mark group and put up their concern program consequently. Therefore, from a seller ‘s point of position cheery touristry can be seen as a niche section of today ‘s touristry industry concentrating on the planetary GLBT community.
Harmonizing to Clift et Al. ( 2002 ) one of the first noted cheery touristry forms were cultural trips from northern Europe to the Mediterranean part undertaken by rich homosexual work forces. However, the development of GLBT touristry that is known today started in the late nineteenth century and is strongly connected to the overall homosexual motion. After the bend of the century some European metropoliss like Berlin, Paris and Amsterdam started to pass on their emerging cheery subculture. However World War I and II were accountable for a reverse in cheery touristry. But shortly afterwards, in the early 1970s the first official homosexual finishs emerged and at the same time adjustments identified themselves as gay-friendly. Furthermore, rights presentations held by the fagot community turned into moneymaking tourer events ensuing from increasing positive media images.
The gay-friendly front man
The term gay-friendly developed in the late twentieth century in North America and can be related to topographic points, people or establishments and policies that treat homosexuals, tribades, bisexuals and transgender with regard and courtesy. Guaracino ( 2007, p.10 ) further reveals that
Gay-friendly means that you are doing an reliable invitation to the GLBT community ; that you conduct your concern in a mode that embraces people ‘s diverseness doing everyone feel welcomed ; and that your concern policies do n’t punish your GLBT clients or employees.
Whereas in the twelvemonth of 2001 merely few administrations actively used this figurehead 2005 and 2006 were record old ages refering finishs that started to implement gay-friendly runs ( Guaracino, 2007 ) . Strenger ( 2008, par.6 ) argues that metropoliss ‘ gay-friendliness is an index for openness, tolerance and joie de vivre.
By utilizing the gay-friendly signboard finishs chiefly welcome the GLBT community but there exist some unexpected results excessively harmonizing to Guaracino ( 2007 ) . First the character attributes a positive message to other groups of people including Africans, Hispanics and Asians. Furthermore it establishes positive employee morale. The fact that homosexuals and tribades are trendsetters may be a stereotype but nevertheless it can act upon others in determination devising sing the pick of finishs.
As GLBT people want to acquire invited instead than merely accepted finishs and providers frequently replace the term ‘gay-friendly ‘ by ‘gay welcoming ‘ presents.
To pass on a gay-friendly or gay-welcoming message the symbolic power of the Rainbow Flag is used most, which was designed by Gilbert Baker in 1978. The six chevrons stand foring the colors of the rainbow typify the diverseness within the GLBT community ( Guaracino, 2007 ) . Beside the Rainbow Flag besides the Pink Triangle conveys an invitation to the GLBT community ( see figures below ) .
Figure 2 Rainbow Flag Figure 3 Pink Triangle Figure 4 Rainbow Flag including Pink Triangle
The City of Vienna
The perfect point of beginning in the center of Europe coupled with a rich history is non the lone ground that makes the capital of Austria to the most livable metropolis of the universe ( see Figure 5 ) . Sisi, Schnitzel, Waltz, the State Opera House and the Philharmonic Orchestra are some of the typical phrases that instantly place Vienna and do it alone.
Vienna is non merely the capital, but it counts besides to one of the nine federal provinces within Austria. Harmonizing to Vienna ‘s web statistics ( www.wien.gv.at base: April, 2010 ) the sum of square kilometers add up to 414.9 and is therefore the smallest of Austria ‘s states. Nevertheless Vienna is clearly the most thickly settled metropolis within Austria entering an urban denseness of 1.698.957 at that point in clip. The fact that Austria has 8.5 million occupants reveals that about every 5th individual lives in the metropolis of Vienna.
Based on the figure of dwellers the metropolis of Vienna is ranked on topographic point figure 15 among the European cities. Compared to Paris or London which comprise each more or less 10 million subjects Vienna belongs so to one of the smaller metropoliss. Regardless of its size it is of import to advert that Vienna counts to one of the safest metropoliss in the universe and is the 2nd cleanest metropolis within Europe.
Figure 5 Quality of Living Index 2009
Within Europe Vienna is among the top 10 visited metropoliss harmonizing to the Numberss of reachings listed in TourMIS Austria ( base: April 2010 ) . The one-year sum of 4.385.529 including domestic and foreign reachings in the twelvemonth of 2009 clearly states that the Austrian capital has to offer a broad assortment of attractive forces tempting each head.
Having a expression at the current tendencies sing the first one-fourth of this twelvemonth ‘s season Vienna records a strong upward motion in bednights of 8.6 % whereas Austria as a whole histories 8.2 % upturn ( Access on 12 April, 2009 ) . While this could be traced back to the retrieving economic crisis it is an of import fact to advert that many other EU metropoliss as Switzerland, Poland, Ireland and even Germany note a reasonably strong lessening in bednights.
As a affair of class this lifting impetus is more than welcome to Vienna ‘s adjustment enterprises dwelling of about 400 hotels and guesthouses whereas the major portion holds the 3- and 4-star class with 77 % ensuing in 4.656.977 overnights in 2009 ( www.wien.gv.at 2010 ) . Unfortunately the tenancy rate decreased during the past old ages, particularly the 5- and 4-star and hotels lost in denseness.
Refering to the tourers ‘ state of origin the most delineated market is Germany followed by Italy and Great Britain and the one-year gross generated by touristry in Vienna is estimated with a sum of 2.5 billion a‚¬ .
The ‘City of Vienna ‘ every bit good as the ‘Vienna-Tourism ‘ and the ‘Vienna Tourism Industry ‘ steadily work on uninterrupted inventions and amendments and give their best in order to further Vienna ‘s touristry public presentation. The result is notable as Vienna already holds the top place as international convention metropolis. A recent imperativeness conference held by frailty mayoress Mag.a Renate Brauner on the 8th of April, 2010 verified the 2nd best Congress consequences in 2009, near to the record twelvemonth of 2007.
Looking in front the Vienna touristry construct 2015 reads “ 100 and 1 and now ” . Whereas the 100 bases for the growing in sale of 100 million a‚¬ in the cordial reception industry, the 1 demonstrates the addition in bed darks of 1 million a‚¬ within this expression. Therefore the cordial reception industry ‘s turnover is assumed to be 587 million and the sum of overnights adds up to 11.2 million based on the record twelvemonth in 2008 ( Vienna Tourism Board, 2010 ) .
In order to accomplish this ambitious end a new scheme of the Vienna Tourism Board focuses on tourers ‘ cleavage in respect to lifestyle communities as the society gets more disconnected and as a consequence societal webs develop. Travelers want to mess around with like-minded people and await particular offers tailored harmonizing their involvements.
Sum uping Austria ‘s capital is making really good in comparing to other Cardinal European metropoliss refering the prosperity of touristry.
3.2. The GLBT Community
Within the last few decennaries the GLBT community has become progressively seeable ( Clift et al. , 2002 ) . Ongoing media coverage and political treatments covering with homosexual subjects are merely two out of several grounds that are contributing to thwart peoples ‘ assurance ( Brauhofer, no day of the month ) .
The ground for increasing homosexual consciousness may impute to the visual aspect of AIDS in the 1990s, where homophiles reached the populace through immediate imperativeness releases. Beside the unfavorable and sad information the subject entails the related result refering watchfulness may be considered as advantageous presents ( Clift et al. , 2001 ) .
Mentioning to the Numberss of homophiles there exist assorted premises by conjecture. Even Clift et Al. ( 2007, p.94 ) argues that there are ‘as many replies as research workers ‘ .
Harmonizing to Vienna ‘s Web Service ( 2010 ) the per centums reach from 5 % to 15 % whereas in general a portion of 10 per centum is presumed.
On the other manus Clift et Al. ( 2007 ) came to the consequence that the per centum of cheery work forces is between 7 and 9 per centum and the part of cheery adult females lies between 3 and 5 per centum after analysing 28 surveies.
In congested countries the sum of homosexuals may be even higher as the Berlin Tourism Board indicates a fraction of 20 % homosexual occupants. However, due to favoritism, incomprehension, and fright of disadvantages in mundane life half of all GLBT people live ‘in the cupboard ‘ and wish to maintain secret their sexual orientation or gender individuality. Hence an exact indicant of homosexual Numberss is absolute impossible.
Furthermore, the entire homosexual population consists in general of 70 % work forces and 30 % adult females ( Schneider-Lindberg, 2008 ) .
Barely conceivable that homosexualism was illegal in Austria until 1971 and is still non legalized in some parts of the universe. Where a bulk of today ‘s society is unshockable and has a high credence adverse the GLBT community some still confront this issue skeptically. Since the authorities acknowledged human equal rights the major discovery refering homosexualism was the legalization of homosexual and sapphic relationships. A registered brotherhood of same sex spouses is officially recognized in Austria since January 1st, 2010 ( Die Presse, 2009 ) .
GLBT people come from all races, ages, ethnicities, nationalities, incomes, political and spiritual associations, professions, physical abilities and gender looks ( Guaracino, 2007, p. 171 ) . The entire population of homophiles is about every bit diverse as society as a whole and in some respects possibly even more diverse ( Friedheim, 1998 cited Clift et al. , 2002, p.96 ) .
Sum uping the statements above one can presume that there exists no such thing as ‘gay consumer behavior ‘ . Fortunately the turning Numberss of market research get merchandisers a deeper penetration into the topic of homosexual client analysis ( Clift et al. , 2002 ) . However, Guaracino ( 2007 ) stated more than one time that homosexual stereotyping should be avoided.
Another of import fact to observe it is that tribades ‘ features are non comparable with their male opposite numbers as they differ in demographics and psychographics every bit good as in their buying behavior. While cheery work forces and adult females do portion similar beliefs and media wonts market research has shown that both parties need a different attack when aiming ( Guaracino, 2007 ) . Therefore the features listed in the undermentioned chapter apply chiefly to homosexual work forces.
4.3.1. German capital
Doubtless, the metropolis of Berlin counts to Vienna ‘s keenest competition with respect to the homosexual and sapphic scene irrespective as it is ranked as the 3rd largest homosexual city within Europe. Not less than 400.000 homophiles live in the capital of Germany doing great demands on eternal activities, services and establishments for cheery work forces, tribades, transexuals, retarding force Queenss and drag male monarchs. More exactly Berlin ‘s homosexual offer comprises of 150 homosexual bars, two free metropolis magazines, athleticss nines, wireless and Television broadcasts, infinite organisations, meeting topographic points, reding services, associations and a throbbing nightlife scene.
Very shortly after the Berlin Tourism Board ( BTM ) was founded in 1993 the focal point was laid on sapphic and cheery travel from the USA. Compared to Vienna, that specialises on the demands of this of import mark market since merely two old ages, Berlin has set up a elaborate selling scheme over a period of a decennary. Furthermore Berlin was one of the first travel finishs to include homosexual content web sites and continually strives towards coverage of homosexual and sapphic intelligence and subjects in world-wide imperativeness activities. Therefore it even opened up a imperativeness office in Los Angeles for the US market with first-class connexions to gay publications. As Germany ‘s entrance tourers arrive to a great extent from the USA the National Tourist Office runs a run named “ Gay-friendly Germany ” including e-marketing on travel web sites over at that place.
Another of import characteristic is Berlin ‘s planetary networking with cardinal administrations such as the spread outing rank of the IGLTA every bit good as the stopping point relationship to the local homosexual community and concerns.
BTM joins a great figure of events, supports undertakings and undertakes assorted selling activities.
The scope of pride events hold in the metropolis of Berlin is possibly one of their biggest strengths. Every twelvemonth 100s of 1000s come out to the streets for the one-year Christopher Street Day processing for equal rights for all homosexuals and tribades. In add-on the ‘Gay-Lesbian Street Festival ‘ has seen a rapid growing in showing the homosexual scene to the outside universe. Last but non least the universe celebrated Love Parade should non be forgotten to advert as it is the sharpest pride go oning beside rather a few other homosexual events throughout the twelvemonth.
In the twelvemonth of 2001 Klaus Wowereit was elected as the first homosexual city manager and is it still since he was re-elected by the occupants of Berlin.
Gayfriendly pharmaceutics, homosexual chippie
-network with cardinal organisations globally such as IGLTA
-hosting the IGLTA 2012 Convention
In the United States the homosexual and sapphic touristry is assessed as a 54 $ billion industry harmonizing to Community Marketing Incorporated ( Guaracino, 2007 ) . The American Travel Industry observed that a portion of 85 % homosexual and tribades undertake one-year holidaies, which is unequivocally more frequently than heterosexual trips per twelvemonth.
American Airlines, the universe ‘s largest air hose, was one of the first travel companies that marketed the GLBT community. With 18 old ages of experience the air hose has built up an first-class frequent circular plan, a planetary path web every bit good as a good repute in many communities. Since the twelvemonth of 2006 they even have launched a web page for GLBT travelers keeping a monopolistic place with it. AA.com/rainbow offers great price reductions and trades for homosexuals including no engagement fees, particular content of involvement, e-newsletters with alone travel tips and due to their partnership with gay-friendly hotels a 20 % price reduction on hotel reserves.
6.1. Goal of the empiricist philosophy
Since really few surveies have been conducted in the country of cheery touristry in Vienna so far it is of particular involvement to me researching this undesired topic.
General end of this study is to supply a suggestion to the Vienna Tourist Board sing a powerful and effectual homosexual selling of the metropolis of Vienna. Therefore the most of import discrepancies will be summarized and illustrated. The aim is to derive extra cognition refering the GLBT communities ‘ attitude towards Vienna as a homosexual finish, its advertisement run every bit good as the gay-friendly front man in general.
The old debut to theory was utile to acquire a better apprehension of the nature of this field research. Hence, based on the background of secondary literature following hypotheses were designed to supply utile findings in the terminal:
Homosexuals are good educated and have a high income on norm.
Vienna ‘s society has a high degree of credence inauspicious homosexuals.
Vienna does n’t tap its full potency to be acknowledged as a cheery metropolis. There is still opportunity to better.
Gay tourers hold a different travel demand compared to straight persons.
After the canvass ‘s completion these hypotheses will be either rejected or accepted
6.2. Methodology of the empirical survey
For this empirical survey an electronic study by dint of a questionnaire was chosen. In order to vouch a standardised questionnaire chiefly closed inquiries were drafted. As closed inquiries are easier and therefore quicker to reply the come-at-able sum of responded questionnaires is higher compared to an unfastened inquiry canvass. Further a study of geographic scattered individuals is simpler and the hazard of being influenced by the interviewer is non applicable.
On the other manus the job of being influenced by others exists when make fulling in electronically as the state of affairs of the canvass is non governable. Another disadvantage with regard to the electronic study is the representativeness every bit good as the cogency. To avoid these facts a short formation of the questionnaire is considered.
By and large the purpose of 40 respondents was determined. Initially there was the consideration of seeking out homosexual and sapphic people in Vienna ‘s GLBT vicinity such as coffeehouse and bars to make full in the questionnaires but so the sample pick would hold been restricted to people sing these installations. Unfortunately it is impossible to capture wholly random samples, as even professional GLBT researches are based on people who are self-identified as homophiles and come frontward through cheery media. As the empiricist philosophy refering this paper was conducted electronically and hence absolutely anon. the prejudice of populating openly homosexual does non be. However, as a nexus taking to the study was posted on societal web sites or either sent by e-mailing the sample is limited to homophiles being familiar with computing machine applications. But as already mentioned, homophiles are above norm
6.3. Empirical design
6.3.1. Warrant of apprehensiveness
Table 1 illustrates the empirical warrant of apprehensiveness for the undermentioned study. It shows a sum-up of the empirical attack.
Table 1: Empirical warrant of apprehensiveness
Form of aggregation:
Electronic study ( www.freeonlinesurvey.com )
Items of a given population:
Random homosexual tourers utilizing the Internet
Standardized questionnaire with closed and unfastened reply classs
Time period of nose count:
Number of sample size:
Number of functional studies:
Data processing applications:
Excel and SPSS 18.0 for Windows