Discussed in this essay is an lineation of US boundary lines and security related to them. The geographic and strategic value of the boundary lines has been described in the beginning. Then the beginning and intent of United States Border Patrol has been discussed. Mentioned in the in-between organic structure are the stairss or actions that USBP had taken so far in for safeguarding the boundary lines along with the problem they have endured in controling issues such as illegal in-migration. drug and human trafficking and screen immigrants for the marks of terrorist act.
Besides discussed in length are human and drug trafficking that takes topographic point across US boundary line and how these things make their manner into United States. The United States policy sing border security is briefly discussed and the essay is closed with an analytical decision. US Border Security Since the beginning of civilisation. boundary lines have possibly been the most valued plus states consider themselves to hold. Wars have been waged for the interest of their protection or enlargement but they have been regarded religiously none the lupus erythematosus.
As humanity progressed into the latter centuries. the constructs and its rigidness sing the boundary lines of a province kept on altering as the ancient universe had unfastened and remote-controlled boundary lines. United States of America. since its creative activity has been guarding her boundary lines with absolute ardor and dedication. Geting the half of the north American continent. United States is flanked by ocean on both its E and west side. whilst it portions its boundary lines with Canada in the North and from Mexico in the South.
Bing one of the richest. most advanced and extremely organized states of the universe. United States boundary lines have been the object of captivation for its adjacent states. specially Mexico being a 3rd universe state populating right at the door measure of US. Adhering to a rigorous and austere in-migration and interior policy. people from all across the Earth find it hard to acquire entryway into the US without terrible securitization.
Offering the glorious chances of freedom. fiscal security. safeguarding of rights and its ability to absorb the diverse civilizations of the universe into its ain. about every individual in the universe has been enchanted by the chance of populating a life in the US. the Land of the Free. That is the ground its 8. 000 stat mis long boundary line have been violated adequate times. specially from the South as immigrants from all across South American wants to populate a life of peace in the US. Along with the sea of illegal immigrants. US boundary lines besides face runners of both drugs and contraband points because of being one of the most moneymaking markets in the universe.
Coupled with these problems. US boundary lines have been guarded extremely as agencies of non allowing terrorist from doing their manner into US. The gustatory sensation of 9/11 is something that US hasn’t rather forgotten yet. Therefore. the boundary line security of United States is non merely one of the highest efficient and vigilant in the universe. it is besides one of the most sensitive one due to its huge size. Its importance can be summed up in the words of Ronald Regan as he said: “The simple truth is that we’ve lost control of our ain boundary lines. and no State can make that and survive. We ignore America’s lost sovereignty at our ain peril” ( cited in World Wide Web.
usborderwatch. com ) Overview The land boundary line of US along with Canada spans 5. 525 stat mis and is the longest non-militarized boundary line in the universe. There are 84 land POEs ( Point Of Entry ) along the northern boundary line. which include but are non limited to three in Idaho. 13 in Maine. three in Michigan. five in Minnesota. 10 in Montana. 12 in New York. 18 in North Dakota. seven in Vermont. and 12 in Washington. Around 250. 000 people enter the United States from Canada. Canada is the individual largest trading spouse of the United States. with the entire trade transcending about $ 372 billion in 2003.
In fact. the largest trade nexus in the universe is the Ambassador Bridge ( linking Detroit. Michigan and Windsor. Ontario ) that has more than 7. 000 trucks traversing day-to-day transporting goods worth more than $ 120 billion per twelvemonth. The southern land boundary line with Mexico is 1. 933 stat mis across and has 25 land POEs. six of which are in California. six in Arizona. two in New Mexico. and 11 in Texas. Over 800. 000 people arrive from Mexico daily. Mexico is United States 2nd largest trading spouse. with the trade of $ 220. 3 billion in 2003. down from $ 247. 2 billion in 2000.
The seashore line of the United States is 12. 479 stat mis long and there are 143 sea POEs. Some sea and river POEs are chiefly commercial ports while others receive riders ( Border Security: Inspections Practices. Policies. and Issues. 2004 ) . In order to be able to get by with such a huge boundary line from which non trade ware has been able to go through but besides downpour of immigrants. either legal or illegal along with the high possibility of drugs. spirits. contraband points and smuggled good. US Border Patrol was founded in 1924 which after 85 five old ages is among one of the finest jurisprudence enforcement organisations in the universe.
United States Border Patrol ( USBP ) Founded in 1924. the U. S. Border Patrol was established in El Paso. Texas. and Detroit. Michigan. Its primary intent was to control the illegal entry of foreigners. contraband. and the flow of out spirits from Mexico and Canada into the United States. Under the authorization of the Immigration Act. approved by Congress on May 28. 1924. the Border Patrol was created as a uniformed jurisprudence enforcement subdivision of the Immigration Bureau ( “85 Old ages Of Protected By” . 2009 ) .
Back in those yearss. smuggling of spirits from Canada and Mexico was an vastly moneymaking concern and invited illegal immigrants to hold a spell at their fortunes in United States. Today. the USBP’s primary mission is to observe and forestall the entry of terrorists. arms of mass devastation. and illegal foreigners into the state. and to interdict drug runners and other felons along the boundary line. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 dissolved the Immigration and Naturalization Service and placed the USBP within the Department of Homeland Security ( DHS ) ( Border security. the function of US boundary line patrol. 2008 ) .
In the aftermath of 9/11. USBP’s support and adult male power has been increased exponentially by the consent of Congress. Now holding about 18. 000 agents in 20 sectors. and 164 Stationss all across the United States. its aims and schemes besides include the bar of terrorists from come ining the United States dirt along with the sensing and neutralisation of arms of mass devastation. Possibly the toughest undertaking USBP has to make is to control the flow of illegal immigrants the droves the boundary lines of United States. particularly the southern boundary line.
Due to the fact that over 97 % of unauthorised migratory apprehensivenesss occur along the southwest boundary line. the USBP deploys over 90 % of its agents there to discourage illegal in-migration. In 1993. a survey commissioned by the Office of National Drug Control Policy pointed out to the fact that the southwest boundary line was going the lair of illegal immigrants observing as an illustration that 6. 000 illegal immigrants attempted to come in the United States every dark along a 7.
5 mile stretch of the San Diego boundary line. The survey besides concluded that drug smuggling was a serious menace all along the southwest boundary line. and recommended that the entries of the illegal immigrants should e prevented at the boundary line instead than collaring them after entryway. This accordingly led to USBP’s execution of its first National Strategic Plan ( NSP ) in 1994. National Strategic Plan
An enterprise to derive control over the overrun boundary lines. NSP started out as a multiphase plans so as to maximise the USBP’s resources and their execution on the countries of greatest entry of illegal immigrants and goods. The focal point of the NSP was an operational scheme known as “Prevention Through Deterrence. ” The strategy’s end was to put USBP agents and resources straight on the boundary line in order to forestall the entry of illegal foreigners. instead than trying to collar foreigners after they have already entered the state.
Strategy’s stage I was called plan “Hold the Line” at El Paso sector. which focused on the deployment of the agents deep into the boundary lines in order to observe any alleged or attempted entries of boundary line traversing instead than groking the perpetrators in the metropolis streets and blowing cherished clip as it was comparatively easy to catch boundary line crossers in the broad unfastened desert. The plan wasn’t a complete success as it simply shifted the boundary line traversing point from El Paso to somewhere else. San Diego’s Operation Gatekeeper followed after the El Paso plan and many agents were deployed along the San Diego boundary line.
Helping them was the province of the art land detectors. infra-red cameras and bowl visible radiations along with landing mats used as a boundary line fencing. Phase II of the plan included the enlargement of Operation Safeguard ( 1999 ) in Tucson. Arizona. operation Rio Grande ( 1997 ) in the McAllen and Laredo sectors of Texas. and an increased accent on procuring the northern boundary line. Phase III was set to affect the staying countries of the southwest boundary line every bit good as the coastal Waterss around Florida and Puerto Rico ( Border security. the function of US boundary line patrol. 2008 ) .
After the fatal events of 9/11. the USBP has modified its directives and prioritising the bar of terrorist incursion through the boundary lines. As the probes associating to 9/11 revealed that the terrorists had roamed freely across US with the position of illegal immigrant and prepared for the onslaughts from with in the US dirt. USBP in coaction with Immigration and Custom’s Enforcements. Anti Smuggling Unit of measurements and CBP’s intelligence has directed all its attending towards the foreigner incursion across the US boundary line.
USBP revealed their new scheme to get by with the panic menaces from come ining US via illegal boundary line crossing in March 2005. The five major points of that scheme are as follows. – Establishing the significant chance of groking terrorists and their arms as they attempt to come in illicitly between the ports of entry ; – Deterring illegal entries through improved enforcement ; – Detecting. groking. and discouraging runners of worlds. drugs. and other contraband ;
– Leveraging “Smart Border” engineering to multiply the hindrance and enforcement consequence of Agents ; – Reducing offense in boundary line communities. thereby bettering the quality of life and economic verve of those countries ( Border security. the function of US boundary line patrol. 2008 ) . Endeavoring difficult to acquire the undertaking done. the Homeland Security Department last twelvemonth awarded one of the most ambitious engineering contracts in the war on panic. a 10-year trade estimated at up to $ 10 billion to the planetary consulting house Accenture.
In return. the company would supply services to make a “virtual border” that would electronically test 1000000s of foreign travellers. Termed as US-VISIT plan. which stands for the United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology. started in July 2003. The US-VISIT system must finally cover about 7. 000 stat mis of boundary lines along Mexico and Canada. including more than 300 land. air and sea ports that witness 450 million crossings a twelvemonth ( Higam & A ; O’Harrow Jr. . 2005. p. A01 ) . Human and Drug Trafficking across US boundary lines
Aside from the freshly instilled fright of terrorist act. United States faces the troublesome elements of smuggling of drugs and human trafficking and most of these ghastly things wade their manner into America by agencies of illegal boundary line crossing. Addressing the human trafficking component foremost. “The U. S. State Department’s 2005 Report on Human Trafficking estimates that between 600. 000 to 800. 000 people are trafficked across international boundary lines every twelvemonth and about 20. 000 are trafficked across U. S. boundary lines alone” ( “Combat Trafficking in Persons” . 2005 ) .
The atrocious side of this gruesome concern is that most of the trafficked individuals are kids. Highly moneymaking and apparently unnoticeable. “human trafficking is considered to be the third-largest beginning of condemnable income worldwide. bring forthing an estimated $ 9. 5 billion per twelvemonth. It is besides closely linked with money laundering. papers counterfeit. drug trafficking and international terrorist act. ” ( Keefer. 2006. p. 5 ) . Harmonizing to John P. Torres. deputy adjunct manager for smuggling and public safety at the United
States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement ( ICE ) cross boundary line human trafficking is a “significant hazard to national security and public safety” ( Seper. 2004 ) . Drug trafficking is the job that has plagued US since its really get downing. The really intent of the constitution of USBP was to forbid bootleg drugs from come ining American district but even after 85 old ages. the job has non been to the full curbed yet. It is the most moneymaking organized offense operation in United States with its one-year income estimated to be “as high as $ 110 billion” ( “America’s Habit” . 1986 ) .
Cocaine being the most sought after drug. as its roots of beginning are literally buried in South American states. other popular drugs such as marihuanas and diacetylmorphines make its manner into United States by agencies of either maritime vass or through southern boundary line. The legion drug trusts active in United States gets their drugs en path Mexico regardless of the joint ventures both states engaged in so as to halter the drug trafficking. Mexico itself cultivates diacetylmorphine and due to its lightly guarded 2. 000 stat mis border with United States is the main seller of diacetylmorphine in USA.
Drugs besides are brought in resistance through tunnels ; some 100 have been discovered since 1990 along the 1. 950-mile U. S. -Mexico boundary line. The most sophisticated tunnels have visible radiations. air systems and fluid mechanicss ( Feyerick et al. 2009 ) . Regardless of excess tight security since 9/11 drug somehow is doing its manner into United States and hasn’t wholly been stopped yet. Aside from human and drug trafficking. the USBP besides has to look out for points of contraband nature such as arms and pirated ware.
With such a immense figure of people go throughing through both north and south boundary lines of United States. runing down illegal immigrants. terrorists. drugs and pirated ware has become a dashing undertaking for USBP. United States Border Security Policy Aware of its much sought after position. United States boundary line security has ever been really clear and its primary motivation is to do certain the safety and its boundary lines from the droves of illegal immigrants and smuggled goods. The primary accent of the policy is about the position of immigrants who crosses both the boundary lines of north and south to derive entree into United States.
Bing in first-class footings with the authorities of Canada. the northern boundary line of United States is subjected to less size uping every bit compared to the southern one that’s in contact with Mexico. The occupants of Mexico are issued a particular Mexican Laser Visa that grants them entree into US for every bit long as 6 months. Southern boundary line. being invariably breached by illegal immigrants and runners is a extremely watched district where 1000s of people pass every twenty-four hours therefore doing it highly hard for CBP and USBP to maintain an oculus out for anomalousnesss. Keeping that in head. allowing Visa is non the lone process to derive entree into United States.
Interviews are conducted. informations is cross referenced and surveillance is mounted so that merely the right individual could be able to travel through the Gatess of US. In the station 9/11 times. the security cheques has been doubled and it has become the “primary mission of CBP is to forestall terrorists and terrorist arms from come ining the state. However. other constituents of CBP’s mission include interdicting other prohibited points such as illegal drugs. ammo. pieces. and imitative goods ; and supervising trade compliance” ( Border Security: Inspections Practices. Policies. and Issues. 2004 ) . Decision
The boundary line patrol scheme was aimed at beef uping of United States in-migration Torahs and endeavor for diminishing the figure of illegal immigrants coming into the United States by increasing controls at the its boundary lines. Previously the resources were chiefly directed at beef uping the boundary line patrol along the southwest boundary line. to control the entryway of illegal immigrants and bootleg goods but the terrorist onslaughts. nevertheless. brought attending to the northern boundary line. which has been short-handed and lacked the necessary engineering to adequately screen persons seeking entry into the United States.
Several pieces of statute law passed in the 107th Congress authorized and appropriated support for extra staffing and resources along the northern boundary line. Regardless of its outstanding services and capablenesss. USBP has non been able to wholly undertake the job of illegal immigrants and bootleg ware. Many grounds. such the sheer size of the boundary lines. the figure of immigrants go throughing through it every and the dour determinacy of people willing to come in the Land of the Free etc may lend to its uncomplete success.
But that still doesn’t alter the fact that US boundary lines are much more safe and argus-eyed in the presence of United Stated Border Patrol. Reference “85 old ages of protected by” retrieved May 24. 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. cbp. gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/85th_anniversary. xml/ . “America’s Habit” . Drug Abuse. Drug Trafficking. & A ; Organized Crime President’s Commission on Organized Crime. 1986. retrieved May 24. 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. druglibrary. org/SCHAFFER/GOVPUBS/amhab/amhabc3. htm/ . “Border Security: Inspections Practices. Policies. and Issues” . CRS Report for Congress. 2004.
Order Code RL32399. Congressional Research Service. The Library of Congress. “Border Security: The Role of the U. S. Border Patrol” . CRS Report for Congress. 2008. Order Code RL32562. Congressional Research Service. The Library of Congress. Feyerick. Deborah ; Cary. Michael & A ; Steffen. Sheila. “Drug runners going more originative. U. S. agents say” April 16. 2009. retrieved May 24. 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //edition. cnn. com/2009/CRIME/04/16/creative. drug. smugglers/index. html/ . Keefer. Sandra L. . “Human Trafficking And The Impact On National Security For The United States” March 2006. U. S.
Army War College Carlisle Barracks. Pennsylvania 17013. p. 5-8. O’Harrow Jr. Robert & A ; Higham. Scott. “US Border Security At Cross Roads” Washington Post. Monday. May 23. 2005. p. A01. Regan. Ronald. Citation. Retrieved May 24. 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //usborderwatch. com/ . Seper. Jerry. “Human Smuggling a Security Risk. ” Washington Times. 19 May 2004. retrieved May 24 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. washingtontimes. com/functions/print. php? StoryID=20040518-103934-8980/ . Trafficing in Persons Report. U. S. Department of State. 2005. retrieved May 24. 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //state. gov/g/tip/tiprpt/2005/46606. htm/ .